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Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Diplomatic service. (search)
au Prince. Italy. ————, Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary, Rome. Japan. Alfred E. Buck, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary, Tokio. Korea. Horace N. Allen, Minister Resident and Consul-General, Seoul. Liberia. Owen L. W. Smith, Minister Resident and Consul-General, Monrovia. Mexico. Powell Clayton, Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary, Mexico. Netherlands. Stanford Newel, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary, The Hague. Nicaragua and Salvador. William L. Merry, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary, San Jose. (See Costa Rica.) Paraguay and Uruguay. William R. Finch, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary, Montevideo. Persia. Herbert W. Bowen, Minister Resident and Consul-General, Teheran. Peru. Irving B. Dudley, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary, Lima. Portugal. John N. Irwin, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary, Lisbon.
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Folsom, George 1802-1869 (search)
Folsom, George 1802-1869 Historian; born in Kennebunk, Me., May 23, 1802; graduated at Harvard in 1822; practised law in Massachusetts until 1837, when he removed to New York, where he became an active member of the Historical Society. He was appointed charge d'affaires at The Hague in 1850 and held the office for four years. He collected a valuable library and was the author of Sketches of Saco and Biddeford; Dutch annals of New York; Address on the discovery of Maine. He died in Rome, Italy, March 27, 1869.
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), France, early relations with. (search)
tion with the United States. He saw the unity of the people with Washington as leader, and paused; and, through letters to Pinchon (August and September, 1798), information was conveyed to the United States government that the Directory were ready to receive advances from the former for entering into negotiations. Anxious for peace, President Adams, without consulting his cabinet or the national dignity, nominated to the Senate William Vans Murray (then United States diplomatic agent at The Hague) as minister plenipotentiary to France. This was a concession to the Directory which neither Congress nor the people approved, and the Senate refused to ratify the nomination. This advance, after unatoned insults from the Directory, seemed like cowardly cringing before a half-relenting tyrant. After a while the President consented to the appointment of three envoys extraordinary, of which Murray should be one, to settle all disputes between the two governments. Oliver Ellsworth and Wil
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Gallitzin, Prince Demetrius Augustine 1770-1841 (search)
Gallitzin, Prince Demetrius Augustine 1770-1841 Clergyman; born in The Hague, Holland, Dec. 22, 1770, where his father was Russian ambassador. He belonged to one of the oldest and richest families among the Russian nobles. In 1792 he came to the United States for the purpose of travel, but determined to become a Roman Catholic priest. He entered the St. Sulpice Seminary in Baltimore, and was ordained a priest March 18, 1795, being the first priest who had both received holy orders and been ordained in the United States. He was sent on missions, but was recalled in consequence of his impetuosity and over-zeal. In 1799 he was appointed pastor at Maguire's settlement. He purchased 20,000 acres in the present Cambria county, Pa., which he divided into farms and offered to settlers on easy terms. Although constantly hampered by lack of money to carry out the grand schemes he contemplated, his colony took root and soon sent out branches. He had adopted the name of Schmettau,
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Greek fire, (search)
Greek fire, A combustible composition (unknown, thought to have been principally naphtha) invented by Callinicus, an engineer of Heliopolis, in Syria, in the seventh century, and used by the Greek emperors. A so-called Greek fire, probably a solution of phosphorus in bisulphide of carbon, was employed at the siege of Charleston, S. C., in 1863. The use of all such substances in war is now prohibited, under a decision of the International Peace Conference at The Hague in 1889.
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Holland. (search)
he United States on April 19, 1782. This was brought about by the energetic application of John Adams, who, on the capture of Henry Laurens (q. v.), was sent to The Hague as minister plenipotentiary to the States-General, or government, of Holland. His special mission was to solicit a loan, but he was clothed with full powers to Oct. 8, 1782); he also made a successful application for a loan, which was a seasonable aid for the exhausted treasury of the colonies. The treaty was signed at The Hague by John Adams and the representatives of the Netherlands, and was ratified in January, 1783. Late in 1780 Great Britain, satisfied that the Netherlands would been in progress some time. On Dec. 20 King George declared war against Holland. Before the declaration had been promulgated, and while efforts were making at The Hague to conciliate England and avoid war, British cruisers pounced upon and captured 200 unsuspecting merchant vessels laden with cargoes of the aggregate value of $5
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), International law, (search)
ther, and in these congresses the United States has occupied a conspicuous place. The Association for the Reform and Codification of the Law of Nations held its first session in Brussels, Oct. 10, 1873, and subsequent ones were held in Geneva, The Hague, Bremen, Antwerp, Frankfort, London, Berne, Cologne, Turin, and Milan. An Institute of International Law was organized in Ghent in 1873, and has since held numerous sessions in various cities of Europe, The most conspicuous action of the natiot. 10, 1873, and subsequent ones were held in Geneva, The Hague, Bremen, Antwerp, Frankfort, London, Berne, Cologne, Turin, and Milan. An Institute of International Law was organized in Ghent in 1873, and has since held numerous sessions in various cities of Europe, The most conspicuous action of the nations concerning the abolition of international hostilities was taken in the Peace Conference at The Hague, in 1899, to which the United States was also a party. See codes; field, David Dudley.
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Lee, Charles 1731- (search)
ns, the Americans had unbounded confidence in Lee, and many were in favor of making him commander-in-chief of the Continental army at the time Washington was appointed. Indeed, he expected the honor, and was disappointed and surprised because he did not receive it. He had been in military training from his boyhood, and represented himself as well versed in the science of war. He was better understood in England. From what I know of him. wrote Sir Joseph Yorke, then British minister at The Hague, he is the worst present which could be made to any army. And so he proved to the Americans. He was selfish in the extreme. He had left the English army because he saw no chance of being provided for at home. Soured against his government, he had sought employment anywhere as a mere military adventurer. He venerated England, and declared it to be wretchedness itself, not being able to herd with the class of men [the English] to which he had been accustomed from infancy. He was contin
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Lee, William 1737-1795 (search)
lomatist; born in Stratford, Va., in 1737: brother of Richard Henry and Arthur; was agent for Virginia in London, and became a merchant there. The city of London being overwhelmingly Whig in politics, William Lee was elected sheriff of that city and Middlesex county in 1773. In 1775 he was chosen alderman, but on the breaking out of the war in America retired to France. Congress appointed him commercial agent at Nantes at the beginning of 1777, and he was afterwards American minister at The Hague. Mr. Lee was also agent in Berlin and Vienna, but was recalled in 1779. In 1778 Jan de Neufville, an Amsterdam merchant, procured a loan to the Americans from Holland, through his house, and, to negotiate for it, gained permission of the burgomasters of Amsterdam to meet Lee at Aix-la-Chapelle. There they arranged terms for a commercial convention proper to be entered into between the two republics. When Lee communicated this project to the American commissioners at Paris, they (having
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Low, Seth 1850- (search)
College in 1870; entered his father's mercantile house, and in 1875 became a member of the Seth low firm, and shortly after was elected a member of the Chamber of Commerce. Later he established the Brooklyn Bureau of Charities. In 1881 and 1883 he was elected mayor of Brooklyn. Mr. Low was chosen president of Columbia College in 1890. In 1899 President McKinley appointed him one of the United States delegates to the Universal Peace Conference called by the Czar of Russia and held at The Hague, Netherlands, that year. Since his accession to the presidency of Columbia University he has been exceedingly liberal in promoting its welfare. In 1895 he offered to erect a grand university library at his own expense. This building by the time of its completion had cost him about $1,200,000. In honor of his munificence, the trustees established twelve scholarships for Brooklyn boys and twelve in Barnard College for Brooklyn girls. In 1897 Mr. Low was the candidate of the Citizens' Un
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