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Browsing named entities in A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith). You can also browse the collection for 399 BC or search for 399 BC in all documents.

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Eucleides (*Eu)klei/dhs), a native of MEGARA, or, according to some less probable accounts, of Gela. He was one of the chief of the disciples of Socrates, but before becoming such, he had studied the doctrines, and especially the dialectics, of the Eleatics. Socrates on one occasion reproved him for his fondness for subtle and captious disputes. (D. L. 2.30.) On the death of Socrates (B. C. 399), Eucleides, with most of the other pupils of that philosopher, took refuge in Megara, and there established a school which distinguished itself chiefly by the cultivation of dialectics. The doctrines of the Eleatics formed the basis of his philosophical system. With these he blended the ethical and dialectical principles of Socrates. The Eleatic dogma, that there is one universal, unchangeable existence, he viewed in a moral aspect, calling this one existence the Good, but giving it also other names (as Reason, Intelligence, &c.), perhaps for the purpose of explaining how the real. though one
entrusted Byzantium after its recapture, and the Persian prisoners who were there taken, and who, by his agency, were now allowed to escape, and (apparently in their company) he also himself went to Xerxes, taking with him the remarkable letter from Pausanias, in which he proposed to put the Persian king in possession of Sparta and all Greece, in return for marriage with his daughter. (Thuc. 1.129; Diod. 11.44; Nepos. Paus. 2.) Xenophon, on his arrival in Mysia with the Cyrean soldiers (B. C. 399), found Hellas, the widow of this Gongylus, living at Pergamus. She entertained him, and, by her direction, he attacked the castle of Asidates, a neighboring Persian noble. She had borne her husband two sons, Gorgion, and another Gongylus, the latter of whom, on finding Xenophon endangered in his attempt, went out, against his mother's will, to the rescue, accompanied by Procles, the descendant of Demaratus. (Xen. Anab. 7.8. §§ 8, 17.) These two sons, it further appears (Xen. Hell. 3.1.6),
Go'rgion (*Gorgi/wn), was, according to Xenophon (Xen. Anab. 7.8.8), the son of Hellas, and Gongylus the Eretrian, who received a district in Mysia, as the price of his treachery to his country. [GONGYLUS.] The dates, however, would lead us to suppose that he was a grandson rather than a son of this Gongylus. Of this district Gorgion and his brother Gongylus were lords in B. C. 399, when Thibron passed over into Asia to aid the Ionians against Tissaphernes. It contained the four towns of Gambrium, Palaegambrium, Myrina, and Grynium, and these were surrendered by the brothers to the Lacedaemonian general. (Xen. Hell. iii, 1.6.) [E.
A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), (search)
Longus, C. Dui'lius consular tribune B. C. 399, with five colleagues. (Liv. 5.13; Diod. 14.54; Fasti Capitol.)
Lysippus (*Lu/sippos), a Lacedaemonian, was left by Agis II. as harmost at Epitalium in Elis, when the king himself returned to Sparta from the Eleian campaign, B. C. 400. During the summer and winter of that year Lysippus made continual devastations on the Eleian territory. In the next year, B. C. 399, the Eleians sued for peace. (Xen. Hell. 3.2. §§ 29, &c.; comp. Diod. 14.17; Wess. ad loc.; Paus. 3.8, where he is called Lysistratus.) [
bazus, of the Midland Aeolis. After the death of Zenis, Mania prevailed on Pharnabazus to allow her to retain the satrapy which her husband had held. Invested with the government, she strictly fulfilled her promise that the tribute should be paid as regularly as before, and she not only kept in obedience the cities entrusted to her, but also added to them by conquest the maritime towns of Larissa, Hamaxitus, and Colonae, which she took with the Greek mercenaries whom she maintained liberally in her service. She continued to conciliate the favour of Pharnabazus by frequent presents, as well as by splendid and agreeable entertainments, whenever he came into her satrapy. The valuable assistance, too, which she rendered him both by arms and counsel, he fully appreciated; and she seems to have been at the height of her prosperity, when she was murdered by her son-in-law MEIDIAS, shortly before the arrival of Dercyllidas in Asia, in B. C. 399. (Xen. Hell. iii. 50. §§ 10-14; Polyaen. 8.54
e then seized the towns of Scepsis and Gergis, where the greater part of Mania's treasures was deposited. The other cities, however, of the satrapy refused to acknowledge him as their ruler, and, when he sent presents to Pharnabazus with a request to be invested with the government which his mother-in-law had held, he received a threatening answer and an assurance that the satrap would rather die than leave Mania unrevenged. At this crisis Dercyllidas, the Spartan general, arrived in Asia (B. C. 399), and, having proclaimed freedom to all the Aeolian towns and received several of them into alliance, advanced against Scepsis, where Meidias was. The latter, equally afraid of Pharnabazus and of the Scepsians, sent to Dercyllidas to propose a conference on receiving hostages for his safety. These he obtained; but, when he asked on what terms he might hope for alliance, the Spartan answered, " on condition of giving freedom and independence to the citizens" He then entered Scepsis and proc
.9. s. 36.1). According to thils date Parrhasius himself must have flourished about the 95th Olympiad, B. C. 400, which agrees with all the certain, indications which we have of his time, such as his conversation with Socrates (Xen. Mem. 3.10), and his being a younger contemporary of Zeuxis: the date just given must, however, be taken as referring rather to a late than to an early period of his artistic career; for he had evidently obtained a high reputation before the death of Socrates in B. C. 399. Parrhasius belongs to that period of the history of Greek painting, in which the art may be said to have reached perfection in all its essential elements, though there was still room left for the display of higher excellence than any individual painter had yet attained, by the genius of an Apelles. The peculiar merits of Parrhasius consisted, according to Pliny, in accuracy of drawing, truth of proportion, and power of expression. "He first (or above all) gave to painting true proportio
t Chrysopolis, on the eastern shore of the Bosporus, the satrap induced Anaxibius by large promises, which he never redeemed, to withdraw them front his territory. [ANAXIBIUS.] The great authority with which Tissaphernes was invested by Artaxerxes in Asia Minor, as a reward for his services in the war with Cyrus, naturally excited the jealousy of Pharnabazus; and the hostile feeling mutually entertained by the satraps was taken advantage of by Dercyllidas, when he passed over into Asia, in B. C. 399, to protect the Asiatic Greeks against the Persian power. [DERCYLLIDAS.] In B. C. 396, the province of Pharnabazus was invaded by Agesilaus, but the Lacedaemonian cavalry was defeated by that of the satrap. In 395, Tithraustes, who had been sent lv Artaxerxes to put Tissaphernes to death, and to succeed him in his government, made a merit with Agesilaus of his predecessor's execution, and urged him to leave his province unmolested, and to attack that of Pharnabazus instead, a request to wh
A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), (search)
Philo, Publi'lius 2. VOLERO PUBLILIUS VOLER. N. PHILO, P. F., consular tribune, B. C. 399. (Liv. 5.13 ; Fast. Capit.)
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