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Browsing named entities in A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith). You can also browse the collection for 413 BC or search for 413 BC in all documents.

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ns, who had moreover received information of the plot, were enabled to bring their whole force against Demosthenes, and yet be in time to meet his colleague at Delium. The whole design was thus overthrown, and Demosthenes was further disgraced by a repulse in a descent on the territory of Sicyon. (Thuc. 4.66-74, 76, 77, 89, 101; Diod. 12.66-69.) He does not reappear in history, except among the signatures to the treaties of the tenth year, B. C. 422 (Thuc. 5.19, 24), till the nineteenth, B. C. 413. On the arrival of the despatch from Nicias giving an account of the relief of Syracuse by Gylippus, he was appointed with Eurymedon to the command of the reinforcements, and, while the latter went at once to Sicily, he remained at home making the needful preparations. Early in the spring he set sail with sixty-five ships; and after some delays, how far avoidable we cannot say, at Aegina and Corcyra, on the coasts of Peloponnesus and of Italy, reached Syracuse a little too late to prevent
Dii'trephes *Diitre/fhs, (Thuc. 7.29), probably distinct from the Diotrephes of Thuc. 8.64, was entrusted, B. C. 413, with the charge of carrying home the Thracian mercenaries who arrived at Athens too late to sail for Syracuse with Demosthenes, and were, to save expense, at once dismissed. He made on the way descents upon Boeotia at Tanagra, and at Mycalessus, the latter of which places he surprised, and gave up to the savage butchery of his barbarians. Boeotian forces came up with them, however, in their retreat to the ships, and cut down a considerable number. Diitrephes himself not improbably fell. Pausanias (1.23. §§ 2, 3) saw a statue of him at Athens, representing him as pierced with arrows; and an inscription containing his name, which was doubtless cut on the basement of this statue, has been recently discovered at Athens, and is given on p. 890a. This Diitrephes is probably the same as the Diitrephes mentioned by Aristophanes (Aristoph. Birds 798, 1440), satirized in one pl
Müller refers it, by conjecture, to, B. C. 421. Supplices. Supplices. This also he refers, by conjecture, to about the same period. Ion, Ion, of uncertain date. Hercules Furens, Hercules Furens, of uncertain date. Andromache, Andromache, referred by Müller, on conjecture, to the 90th Olympiad. (B. C. 420-417.) Troades. Troades. B. C. 415. Electra, Electra, assigned by Müller, on conjecture and from internal evidence, to the period of the Sicilian expedition. (B. C. 415-413.) Helena. Helena. B. C. 412, in the same year with the lost play of the Andromeda. (Schol. ad Arist. Thesm. 1012.) Iphigeneia at Tauri. Iphigeneia at Tauri. Date uncertain. Orestes. Orestes. B. C. 408. Phoenissae. Phoenissae. The exact date is not known; but the play was one of the last exhibited at Athens by its author. (Schol. ad Arist. Ran. 53.) Bacchae. Bacchae. This play was apparently written for representation in Macedonia, and therefore at a very late period of the
nd, inspired them with courage for a fresh attempt. By a wiser choice, and by posting his horse and his dartmen on the enemy's flank, he now won the Syracusans their first victory. The counterwork was quickly completed; the circumvallation effectually destroyed; Epipolae cleared of the enemy; the city on one side delivered from siege. Gylippus, having achieved so much, ventured to leave his post, and go about the island in search of auxiliaries. (Thuc. 7.4-7.) His return in the spring of B. C. 413 was followed by a naval engagement, with the confidence required for which he and Hermocrates combined their efforts to inspire the people. On the night preceding the day appointed, he himself led out the whole land force, and with early dawn assaulted and carried successively the three forts of Plemyrium, most important as the depot of the Athenian stores and treasure, a success, therefore, more than atoning for the doubtful victory obtained by the enemy's fleet (Thuc. 7.22, 23). The seco
Medulli'nus 9. L. Furius Medullinus, was twice consul sul, B. C. 413, 409. In his first consulate he conducted. ducted the Volscian war and took Ferentinnu m (Liv. 4.51); in his second both the Aequian and Volscian, when he captured Carventum (id. ib 54, 55).
Nicola'us 3. A Syracusan, who lost two sons in the war with Athens, but at its conclusion, in B. C. 413, endeavoured to persuade his countrymen to spare the Athenian prisoners. (Diod. 13.19-27.)
Polyanthes (*Polua/nqhs), a Corinthian, who commanded a Peloponnesian fleet, with which he fought an indecisive battle against the Athenian fleet under Diphilus in the gulf of Corinth in B. C. 413. (Thuc. 7.34.) He is again mentioned in B. C. 395, as one of the leading men in Corinth, who received money from Timocrates the Rhodian, whom the satrap Tithraustes sent into Greece in order to bribe the chief men in the different Greek states to make war upon Sparta, and thus necessitate tate the recal of Agesilaus from his victorious career in Asia (Xen. Hell. 3.5.1; Paus. 3.9.8
, Callon, Phradmon, Gorgias, Lacon, Myron, Pythagoras, Scopas, and Parelius (H. N. 34.8.19). An important indication of his date is derived from his great statue in the Heraeum near Argos; for the old temple of Hera was burnt in Ol. 89. 2, B. C. 423 (Thuc. 4.133; Clinton, F. H. s.a.); and, including the time required to rebuild the temple of the goddess, the statue by Polycleitus in the new temple could scarcely have been finished in less than ten years; which brings his life down to about B. C. 413. Comparing this conclusion with the date given by Pliny, and with the fact that he was a pupil of Ageladas, Polyclei tus may be safely said to have flourished from about Ol. 82 to 92, or B. C. 452-412. A further confirmation of this date is furnished by Plato's mention of the sons of Polycleitus, as being of about the same age as the sons of Pericles. (Protag. p. 328c.) Of his personal history we know nothing further. As an artist, he stood at the head of the schools of Argos and Sicyon
Sica'nus (*Sikano/s), son of Execestus, was one of the three generals of the Syracusans (Hermocrates being another), who were appointed at the time of the Athenian invasion, B. C. 415. In B. C. 413, after the repulse of the Athenians from Epipolae, he was sent with 13 ships to Agrigentum, to endeavour to obtain assistance; but, before he could reach the city, the party there, which was favourable to the Syracusans, was defeated and driven out. In the sea-fight of the same year, in which the Athenians were conquered and Eurymedon was slain, Sicanus, according to Diodorus, was the author of the plan for setting fire to the enemy's ships, which had been driven into the shallow water near the shore; and shortly after we find him commanding one wing of the Syracusan fleet in the last and decisive defeat of the Athenians in the great harbour of Syracuse. (Thuc. 6.73, 7.46, 50, 53, 70; Diod. 13.13.) [E.
essful war led to anarchy at home. Then we find him, like others of the chief literary men of Athens, joining in the desperate attempt to stay the ruin of their country by means of an aristocratic revolution; although, according to the accounts which have come down to us of the part which Sophocles took in this movement, he only assented. to it as a measure of public safety, and not from any love of oligarchy. When the Athenians, on the news of the utter destruction of their Sicilian army (B. C. 413), appointed ten of the elders of the city, as a sort of committee of public salvation, under the title of pro/bouloi (Thuc. 8.1), Sophocles was among the ten thus chosen. * It has, however, been doubted whether this Sophocles was not another person (See below, No. 4). As he was then in his eighty-third year, it is not likely that he took any active part in their proceedings, or that he was chosen for any other reason than to obtain the authority of his name. All that we are told of his co
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