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for pedestrians perhaps hardly deserve the name. Stevinus, in his work on the principles of equilibrium, 1586, established the fundamental property of the inclined plane, and solved the value of forces acting obliquely. Galileo's treatise on Mechanics appeared a few years later. In various parts of the old countries of Europe and Asia are the remains of vast engineering works on the main routes of travel and conquest. It is supposed that the grade on the great canal of Sesostris (1500 B. C.), which united the Red Sea and the Nile, was overcome by a sluice; probably an inclined plane down which the water ran. The difference in level is but slight, and perhaps on account of the fear of the contamination of the fresh water of the river by the salt water of the sea, it may really have been an inclined plane like that which crossed the Isthmus of Corinth some centuries afterward. The sluice preceded the lock in Europe (see canal), and was probably used also in the grand canal of
. C. Jeremiah and Ezekiel speak of iron, and mention two qualities, one of which the latter calls bright iron, probably steel. The same distinction is made by Hesiod (850 B. C.). Some doubts have been expressed as to the render- ing of the Hebrew passage which speaks of Tubal Cain as an artificer in iron, and the passage which speaks of the iron bedstead of Og, King of Bashan, about 1450 B. C. The Arundelian marbles place the use of iron in 1370 B. C., and other authorities go back to 1537 B. C. These corroborate the iron bedstead of Og. Extremes meet, and we have lately revived the use of the material first recorded as used for that purpose. Moses mentions an iron furnace 1490 B. C., and Job speaks of iron as taken out of the earth. Gold, silver, and copper, and alloys of the last, were, no doubt, used before iron, and it would be reasonable to expect that such would be the case, as they are so readily obtained by simple metallurgic operations, while iron is more refractory.
, and Homer, the attestation of the recovered implements from Egypt and Nineveh, and the Egyptian paintings, render it useless to cite the facts within the notice of the gossiping and credulous Pliny, who professes to give the early history of the metal. Palestine, Asia Minor, Scythia, Elba, and Spain were each celebrated in their time for the production of iron. From Iberia the art spread to Gaul, and from the latter, probably, to Germany. An army of Gauls was defeated by the Romans, 222 B. C., chiefly because the swords of the former bent after a blow or two, and required straightening by the foot, while the superior metal of the Romans stood the brunt. Strabo mentions that one of the exports of Britain was iron; the bold islanders met their invaders with scythes, hooks, broadswords, and spears of iron. The arrival of the Romans and the introduction of artificial blast, which the Romans had derived from their Eastern neighbors, gave a great impulse to the iron works of En
the smith plunges the loud-hissing axe into cold water to temper it, for hence is the strength of iron, etc., shows clearly that the writer or compiler of the Odyssey, whom we are content to call Homer, lived in a time when iron and steel were forged and tempered. About 500 B. C., and thereafter, steel was imported into Greece from the Chalybes, a people inhabiting the shore on the southeast of the Black Sea, and the use of bronze for weapons terminated soon after. Marathon was fought 460 B. C. The steel was called Chalybian, and we retain the name in connection with waters, as Chalybeate springs. In Asia the Chalybes were noted for their works in iron, from which they obtained great profits. — Xenophon, Anab. Aristotle mentions that their arenaceous ores were washed, and he also partially describes the operation of making wootz in India; Diodorus Siculus says that in the island of Ethalia the ores were roasted and broken fine before melting. It was wrought-iron that was
ron. We learn from the Iliad that at the time of the siege of Troy (1184 B. C.) iron was used in making axes, shipwrights' tools, axles for chariots, plowpoints, sheep-hooks, and some other agricultural implements. As the smith plunges the loud-hissing axe into cold water to temper it, for hence is the strength of iron, etc., shows clearly that the writer or compiler of the Odyssey, whom we are content to call Homer, lived in a time when iron and steel were forged and tempered. About 500 B. C., and thereafter, steel was imported into Greece from the Chalybes, a people inhabiting the shore on the southeast of the Black Sea, and the use of bronze for weapons terminated soon after. Marathon was fought 460 B. C. The steel was called Chalybian, and we retain the name in connection with waters, as Chalybeate springs. In Asia the Chalybes were noted for their works in iron, from which they obtained great profits. — Xenophon, Anab. Aristotle mentions that their arenaceous ores w
t of mosaic. We find specimens of inlaying of metals in the articles recovered from ancient Babylon. Overlaying was practiced by the same people. Herodotus states that Glaucus the Chian was the man who invented the art of inlaying steel. The salver made by Glaucus was offered by Alyattes the Lydian at the oracle of Delphi. It is described by Athenaeus as covered with representations of plants and animals. Alyattes was the father of Croesus, who reigned till defeated by Cyrus, 556 B. C. Under this head we may fairly refer to the Taj at Agra, the most beautiful building in the world. It is thus described by Sir Charles Dilke: — On the river bank [the Jumna], a mile from Akbar's palace, in the center of a vast garden entered through the noblest gateways in the world, stands the Taj Mahal, a terrace rising in dazzling whiteness from a black mass of cypresses, and bearing four lofty and delicate minars, and the central pile that gleams like an alp against the deep b
been used in China, India, and Egypt can hardly be determined. Moses, who died 20 years before the era assigned, credits one with the inventio who had been dead 2,000 years when he, the great lawgiver, wrote. Chariots, axes, bedsteads, harrows, weapons of iron, are mentioned in Hebrew history between 1490 B. C. and 1040 B. C. Jeremiah and Ezekiel speak of iron, and mention two qualities, one of which the latter calls bright iron, probably steel. The same distinction is made by Hesiod (850 B. C.). Some doubts have been expressed as to the render- ing of the Hebrew passage which speaks of Tubal Cain as an artificer in iron, and the passage which speaks of the iron bedstead of Og, King of Bashan, about 1450 B. C. The Arundelian marbles place the use of iron in 1370 B. C., and other authorities go back to 1537 B. C. These corroborate the iron bedstead of Og. Extremes meet, and we have lately revived the use of the material first recorded as used for that purpose. Moses mentions
ivory was so plentiful on the borders of Ethiopia that it was used for fences, door-posts, and cattle-stalls. In regard to its ancient uses, it seems to have been essentially a regal luxury. All manner of vessels of ivory are enumerated as among the furnishing of opulent Babylon. Hiram fashioned the great ivory throne of Solomon, and overlaid it with pure gold. Ivory was freely used in the chairs and couches of Egypt, as the paintings in the tombs yet testify. Ahab's ivory house, 900 B. C., and the palace of Menelaus, described by Homer, were probably paneled with ivory, or the walls and pillars inlaid therewith. Ezekiel records that ivory was used to ornament the Phoenician galleys. Beds inlaid or veneered with ivory were used by those who, as Amos says, are at case in Zion, that lie upon beds of ivory and stretch themselves upon their couches. Two hunting inscriptions, one of which principally records the elephant hunts of Ptolemy Philadelphus, were discovered and c
ans are pretty well proved by the paintings, in which the iron or steel knives and sickles are distinguished from the bronze by the color; one being blue, the other a reddish-brown. In Dr. Abbott's collection, now in the possession of the New York Historical Society, are the following articles of iron, stated by the doctor to be of undoubted authenticity. They were found at Thebes:— Iron helmet, neck-guard, and breast-plate of scale armor, with the name of Shishak, who invaded Judea 971 B. C. An iron spatula, iron arrow-head, warrior's flail with iron studs, and some emblematic articles of iron. The ancient iron mines of the Egyptians have been lately discovered by English explorers. The process was wasteful, and the slag contains 53 per cent of iron. The sites are in the vicinity of Mt. Sinai, and it is proposed to work over the debris of the former workings. Of the first use of iron in Egypt, Wilkinson says, we have no certain record. His surprise at the execution
s of the former bent after a blow or two, and required straightening by the foot, while the superior metal of the Romans stood the brunt. Strabo mentions that one of the exports of Britain was iron; the bold islanders met their invaders with scythes, hooks, broadswords, and spears of iron. The arrival of the Romans and the introduction of artificial blast, which the Romans had derived from their Eastern neighbors, gave a great impulse to the iron works of England. Under Adrian, A. D. 120, a fabrica or military forge was established at Bath, in the vicinity of iron and wood. During the Roman occupation of England, some of the richest beds of iron ore were worked, and the debris and cinders yet exist in immense beds to testify to two facts: one, that the amount of material worked was very great; the other, that the plans adopted were wasteful, as it has since been found profitable to work the cinder over again. During the Saxon occupation the furnaces were still in blas
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