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Joseph Whitworth (search for this): chapter 7
r determining and verifying dimensions of the parts in the rifle musket, pattern of 1855; its lock, stock, barrel, ramrod, leaf-sight, bayonet, and mountings. Whitworth's contrivance for testing the truth of a solid measure representing an English inch is a remarkable specimen of mechanical skill and accuracy. The block represeto this extent will free the plate so that it will fall; care being taken that disturbance of the equilibrium of temperature shall not change the conditions. Whitworth's cylinder gages at the Paris Exposition were perforated steel plates, the perforations being highly polished within, and differing from each other in diameter bstinct and equal intervals between them, within the space of an inch. Nobert succeeded in ruling more than eight times as fine. See Nobert's test-plates. Whitworth has graduated micrometers by which the almost inappreciable quantity of one millionth of an inch can be measured. See dividing-engine; measuring-machine. Gr
Eli Whitney (search for this): chapter 7
. A pump operated by windmill. 3. A coal-hoisting machine. See whin. 4. A snare for birds or animals. 5. A spirit distilled from grain and flavored with juniper berries. 6. A machine for separating cotton-fiber from the seeds. Eli Whitney's cotton-gin, invented in 1793, revolutionized the culture and manufacture of the fiber by providing a mode of putting it into merchantable order at a reasonable price. When done by hand, a man can clean but one pound per day. The roller-giit away, while the seed is detained by a comb. The combing instrument used in the Spanish colonies for removing the seed from the cotton-fiber is called almarraes. The syllable al indicates the Saracenic origin of the tool and its uses. In Whitney's saw-gin (A) the cotton is placed in a long and narrow hopper, one side of which is formed by a grating of strong parallel wires 1/8 inch apart. Close to the hopper is a roller with circular saws 1 1/2 inches apart. These, as they revolve, pa
ndiding-mill.Slate-making machine. Grinding-slip.Slicer. Grinding-wheel.Slitting-mill. Grindstone.Smoothing-mill. Grindstone. ArtificialSpade. Grindstone-dresser.Spring-polisher. Holystone.Steel. Hone.Stone-grinding machine. Lap.Stone-polishing machine. Lapidary's mill.Straggling. Lead-mill.Strickle. Lens. Grinding, etc.Tanite. Liner.Tape-carrier. Lustering.Tool-holder for grinding. Marble-polishing.Tripoli. Martin.Tumbler. Mill (varieties, see mill).Varnish. Whetstone.Whiting. Whetter.Wood-polishing machine. Grind′ing and Pol′ish-ing ma-te′ri-als. Abrasive substances used in the solid form: — Grindstone.Charcoal. Hone.Emery-cake. Oil-stone.Fish-skin. Abrasive substances used in powder; materials stated in about the order of their hardness: — Diamond.Turkey-stone dust. Sapphire.Rottenstone. Ruby.Slate. Corundum.Pumice. Emery.Chalk. Sand.Oxide of iron, colcothar. Flint.Crocus or rouge. Glass.Oxide of tin or putty-powder. Tripoli.
rom bog-iron or the sparry carbonate. Ger′man—tu-ta′nia. An alloy of copper, 1; tin, 48; antimony, 4. Ger′man White—cop′per. An alloy of copper, 88; nickel, 8.75; with traces of silex, aluminium, antimony, and arsenic. Get—in. d′stone. A four-wheeled, two-seated pleasure-carriage, with a driver's seat and dickey. Glaire. (Bookbinding.) White of eggs. Used as a size in gilding. Glands. Gland. 1. The cover of a stuffing-box. The cylindrical sleeve b px, 18; fine sand, 4; niter, soda, and kaolin, 3; mix, frit, powder, and add calcined borax, 3. For painted stoneware. White felspar, 26; soda, 6; niter, 2; borax, 1; frit. Of the product take 13; red lead, 50; white lead, 40; ground flint, 12. eparate portions of naphtha, and then mixed. Or, india-rubber, 1 pound; coal naphtha, 4 gallons; shellac, 2 ounces. White fish-glue, or diamond cement, is made of isinglass dissolved in alcohol. Spalding's liquid glue; glue and a
Whetstone (search for this): chapter 7
ive. Grindiding-mill.Slate-making machine. Grinding-slip.Slicer. Grinding-wheel.Slitting-mill. Grindstone.Smoothing-mill. Grindstone. ArtificialSpade. Grindstone-dresser.Spring-polisher. Holystone.Steel. Hone.Stone-grinding machine. Lap.Stone-polishing machine. Lapidary's mill.Straggling. Lead-mill.Strickle. Lens. Grinding, etc.Tanite. Liner.Tape-carrier. Lustering.Tool-holder for grinding. Marble-polishing.Tripoli. Martin.Tumbler. Mill (varieties, see mill).Varnish. Whetstone.Whiting. Whetter.Wood-polishing machine. Grind′ing and Pol′ish-ing ma-te′ri-als. Abrasive substances used in the solid form: — Grindstone.Charcoal. Hone.Emery-cake. Oil-stone.Fish-skin. Abrasive substances used in powder; materials stated in about the order of their hardness: — Diamond.Turkey-stone dust. Sapphire.Rottenstone. Ruby.Slate. Corundum.Pumice. Emery.Chalk. Sand.Oxide of iron, colcothar. Flint.Crocus or rouge. Glass.Oxide of tin or putty-powder. Tri
Wheatstone (search for this): chapter 7
ly constructed consists of a magnetized needle placed parallel to a wire, which, when electrically excited, causes the deflection of the needle. See electrometer; electroscope. The discovery of this property in an electric current was by Oersted of Denmark, in 1819. The principle was soon adopted by electricians in the construction of the indicator telegraph. Ampere, Arago, Schilling, Gauss, Weber, and Alexander all used the principle, but it received its perfected form by Cooke and Wheatstone, English patent, 1837. See indicator-telegraph. Galvanometers. The tendency of the magnetic needle in the vicinity of an electrically excited needle held parallel to it is to assume a position at right angles to the wire conveying the current. By making the needle astatic, that is, by placing two needles with their poles in opposition to each other, they are not affected by the magnetism of the earth, and when thus arranged and surrounded by coils of wire the effect of the electr
ver-seed harvester. Grain-hull′er. A machine for taking the cortex or skin from grain, making hulled wheat, pearl barley, hominy, as the case may he. Known also as a decorticator, debranning-machine, hominy-machine, etc. Grain-huller. Wheat is slightly scalded with steam and then fed between roughened surfaces in motion, or it is rubbed between stones or disks which are set at such a distance apart as not to grind it. In the example, inclined serrated plates are attached to the ca axis as the position of the radial bars changes. The fine flour which passes through the cloth is conducted to a bin; the pollard and bran are conducted to a dressing-machine. The average quantity of wheat ground per week is 20,000 bushels. Wheat can be ground and dressed in fifteen minutes, during which time it passes three times from the top to the bottom of the mill by means of screws and elevators. But few hands are employed, the work of the mill being mostly performed by steam-drive
tone is placed at the foot. On the Sussex coast, south of England, the groins are from 150 to 250 feet long. The piles 4 feet apart, 12 to 25 feet in length. Planking 2 1/2 inches thick; land ties 25 feet in length. Every 16 feet in length contains 4 piles, 1 land tie, tail piles and keys, tie bar, blocks, and bolts, 180 superficial feet of planking, 140 6-inch spikes, and costs $150. See sea-wall; breakwater. 2. (Architecture.) The line of junction of two intersecting arches. A Welsh groin is one crossing transversely, but having a lesser pitch or hight. Groined arch. (Architecture.) An arch intersected by another cutting across it transversely. The line of junction is the groin. Groin-rib. (Architecture.) A rib or projecting member following the line of junction of the two arches forming a groin. Grommet. Grom′met. 1. (Nautical.) A ring formed of a strand of rope laid round and spliced. Used as a hank, a thimble, or with large oars, in conn<
Joseph Wells (search for this): chapter 7
thro Tull's first invention was a kind of plow, with drill attached, for sowing wheat and turnips in three rows at a time; it consisted of two seed-boxes with a colter attached to each, and following each other; behind them followed a harrow to cover in the seed. His object in having two separate deposits of seed, and at different depths, was that they might not sprout at the same time, and so perhaps escape the ravages of the fly; he also invented a turnip-drill. About 1790, Baldwin and Wells of Norfolk, England, contrived several ingenious improvements to the machine, the first of which was in making a sliding axletree, by which the carriage-wheel could be extended when necessary to the width of the stitches (lands), and so enable another box with cups and more colters to be used. A drill containing fourteen colters could be thus enlarged to contain eighteen, or even twenty. They also constructed self-regulating levers, to which the colters were attached; by hanging each col
hat the inflammability of gas was not affected by contact with water. The washer is the third in the series of gas-making apparatus. (See gas-making.) Mr. Croll, an English gas-engineer, is credited with the invention of the gas-washer now in use. Eight or ten gallons of ammoniacal liquor are extracted from the gas produced from 2,000 pounds of coal, and it is treated by manufacturing chemists, who extract about fourteen ounces of sulphate of ammonia from one gallon of the liquor. Gas Weld′ing-furnace. (Metal-working.) A heating jet, or cluster of jets, to heat pieces of metal locally, in order to bring them to a welding temperature. See gas blow-pipe. Gate. 1. A barrier which may be opened to permit passage; as, — Canal-lock gate.Sluice-gate. Farm-gate.Turnpike-gate. Flood-gate.Water-gate. Some of which are considered under their alphabetical order. a is a gate with adjustable hinges, operating on rings on the post; the fastening consisting of a movabl<
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