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Browsing named entities in a specific section of The Photographic History of The Civil War: in ten volumes, Thousands of Scenes Photographed 1861-65, with Text by many Special Authorities, Volume 7: Prisons and Hospitals. (ed. Francis Trevelyan Miller). Search the whole document.

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Dutch Gap (Virginia, United States) (search for this): chapter 1.4
chedule of captures, some of which were pronounced legitimate while the validity of others was denied. When his paroles were exhausted all further exchanges ceased for a time. Brigadier-General S. A. Meredith succeeded Colonel Ludlow as agent A glad sight for the prisoners On top of the gentle slope rising from the river at Aiken's Landing stands the dwelling of A. M. Aiken, who gave the locality his name. For a short time in 1862 Aiken's Landing, on the James River just below Dutch Gap, was used as a point of exchange for soldiers captured in the East. Many prisoners from the Eastern armies in 1862 lifted their tired eyes to this comfortable place, which aroused thoughts of home. There was not likely to be any fighting in a locality selected for the exchange of prisoners, and in this photograph at least there are women and children. At the top of the steps stands a woman with a child leaning against her voluminous skirts, and a Negro mammy with a large white apron sta
Savannah (Georgia, United States) (search for this): chapter 1.4
s, to General Howell Cobb, who was responsible for the suggestion already mentioned that those opposed to the administration be sent home. The burden upon the South became overwhelming. Colonel Ould offered to deliver the sick and wounded at Savannah, without equivalent. Transportation was sent late in November, and there and at Charleston, where the delivery was completed after the railroad leading to Savannah was cut, about thirteen thousand men were released. More than three thousand CoSavannah was cut, about thirteen thousand men were released. More than three thousand Confederates were delivered at the same time. Another proposition for exchange was made on January 24, 1865, and as it was then certain that the action could have little influence on the final result, exchanges were begun and continued with little interruption to the end, though much confusion was caused by the refusal of subordinates who had not been informed of the arrangements to receive the prisoners. In February, for example, General Schofield's orders from General Grant were delayed, and f
Fort Donelson (Tennessee, United States) (search for this): chapter 1.4
announced that his instructions had been changed and that he could exchange man for man only. This offer was refused by General Cobb, who charged that the reason for the unwillingness to complete the agreement was the capture of Forts Henry and Donelson, which gave the Federal Government an excess of prisoners which it was unwilling to release on parole. As the next move on the chess-board, the Confederate Government refused longer to make individual exchanges on the ground that, as politica, U. S. A. The Confederates maintained that they held, for the greater part of the time before the cartel was signed, several times as many prisoners as were held in the North. The excess was considerable until the capture of Forts Henry and Donelson, and the difficulty of feeding and guarding these prisoners was one of the reasons for their anxiety to arrange a plan of exchange. As early as June 17, 1862, the quartermaster-general of the Confederacy wrote that it was almost impossible to f
City Point (Virginia, United States) (search for this): chapter 1.4
outh were filled with the unfortunate. There were specified places, such as Cox's Landing and City Point, where these transfers took place. Grant's later policy was to allow as few as possible. A gsoners in the East were to be delivered at Aiken's Landing on the James River (soon changed to City Point), and in the West at Vicksburg, with the provision that the fortunes of war might render it nelag-of-truce boat New York, which carried exchanged prisoners to Aiken's Landing, and later to City Point, in 1862, for the exchange to be completed. Whatever their enthusiasm for the Stars and Stripn's Landing had served for this purpose only a few weeks when the meeting-place was changed to City Point. The exchange table is in an appendix. organized deserted almost in a mass. The officer of daga rendered valuable aid to the army while Grant centered his operations against Richmond at City Point. In spite of the suspension of the cartel, exchanges went on in the East by special agreem
Cox's Landing (Alabama, United States) (search for this): chapter 1.4
ber 20, 1864 At a slight distance, this might seem a picture of a caravan in the Sahara Desert, but as a matter of fact the men in the far-stretching line are Confederate prisoners escorted by cavalry on their way from the Federal lines to Cox's Landing. The moral courage to surrender is held by all true soldiers to be greater than the physical courage that it requires to die. Sometimes the words are spoken for the soldier by one in authority whose sense of responsibility for the lives of tand military utility—a pawn for a pawn, a knight for a knight, a king for a king, sick men for sick men, and well men for well. Still the prisons of both North and South were filled with the unfortunate. There were specified places, such as Cox's Landing and City Point, where these transfers took place. Grant's later policy was to allow as few as possible. A glance at this hardy band of captured Confederate veterans here tells the reason why. There are a hundred fights in these men yet. Why
United States (United States) (search for this): chapter 1.4
recognition of the Confederate Government. The cartel in force between the United States and Great Britain during the War of 1812 was suggested as a basis. General, Scarcely had that cartel been signed when the military authorities of the United States commenced to practise changing the character of the war. from such as becomas interpreted by President Davis, directed the military authorities of the United States to take the private property of our people for the convenience and use of tns, and William B. Mumford, a citizen, had been hanged for pulling down the United States flag. The Confederacy charged that this was done before the city had been , many thousands were exchanged by Colonel C. C. Dwight, on the part of the United States, and Lieutenant-Colonel N. G. Watts and Major Ignatius Szymanski, on the paote: It may well excite surprise and indignation that the Government of the United States should select for any position of dignity and command a man so notoriously
Seven Pines (Mississippi, United States) (search for this): chapter 1.4
tment. He remained in charge of all questions relating to exchange to the end of the war. endorsed June 14, 1862: No arrangement of any sort has been made, and individual exchanges are declined. We will exchange generally or according to some principle, but not by arbitrary selections. An interesting correspondence, marked by perfect courtesy on both sides, took place during the summer of 1862 between General Lee and General McClellan. On the 6th of June, a week after the battle of Seven Pines, or Fair Oaks, a general order that surgeons should be considered noncombat-ants and not sent to prison was issued from Washington, and was accepted by General Lee on the 17th. On the 9th of July, General Lee proposed to release General McClellan's wounded on parole, and the offer was accepted by General McClellan. Finally, on the 12th of July, General John A. Dix was authorized by Secretary Stanton to negotiate for the exchange, but was cautioned in every possible way to avoid any re
Missouri (Missouri, United States) (search for this): chapter 1.4
rests upon the good faith of the contracting parties. If the terms of a cartel are violated by one belligerent they cease to be obligatory upon the other. George B. Davis, in Outlines of international law. Though prisoners taken in Texas, Missouri, Virginia, and elsewhere had been paroled early in the war, their exchange was not completed until much later. The first instance of formal exchange, apparently, is that in Missouri, when four officers of General G. J. Pillow's command met fourMissouri, when four officers of General G. J. Pillow's command met four of the command of Colonel W. H. L. Wallace, and exchanged six privates, three on each side. The Federal Government was anxious to avoid in any way a recognition of the Confederate government , and therefore whatever exchanges followed these for several months were made by the commanding officers on both sides, unofficially, though with the knowledge and tacit consent of the Government at Washington. The first person who officially realized the fact that the whole question of prisoners and p
Baton Rouge (Louisiana, United States) (search for this): chapter 1.4
the Confederacy (and their white officers) should not be treated as prisoners of war but should be delivered to the States to be punished according to State laws. If this decree had been carried out, these officers might have suffered the penalty of death on the charge of inciting Negro insurrection. The Ninety-second United States Colored Infantry was organized April 4, 1864, from the Twenty-second Corps d'afrique Infantry of New Orleans. These photographs were taken by Lytle at Baton Rouge, Louisiana, just before the disastrous Red River campaign in which the regiment took part. of war. The voluminous correspondence between himself and Colonel Ould is interesting. Both were able lawyers, both had a fondness for disputation, and sometimes one is tempted to believe that to both of them the subject of discussion was not really so important as the discussion itself, and that overwhelming the adversary was more vital than securing the objects of the discussion. All of this was stop
Fortress Monroe (Virginia, United States) (search for this): chapter 1.4
ted with equal joy by Federals and Confederates. It signified liberty and home. The Federal prisoners were usually taken from the point of exchange first to Fortress Monroe, and then to the parole Camp at Annapolis. There they awaited payment for their services, which accrued during the time they were imprisoned just as if they rate army, July 22, 1862, Aiken's Landing on the James River was made a point for exchange of prisoners in the East. These were brought from Richmond or from Fortress Monroe by boats bearing a white flag. The two commissioners met, exchanged rolls, and worked out their exchanges. They had a regular table of equivalents in which ken's house in 1864 for exchange, and soon was involved in acrimonious controversy with Colonel Ould. General Butler, who had been appointed to command at Fortress Monroe, was, at his own suggestion, created a special agent for exchange, and from that time onward made no reports to General Hitchcock, commissioner for exchange,
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