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Indian Ocean (search for this): chapter 10
e more unhappy Charles was wasting his strength in vain struggles against the liberties of his subjects,—the Dutch, a little confederacy, which had been struck from the side of the vast empire of Spain, a new people, scarcely known as possessed of nationality, had, by their superior skill, begun to engross the carrying trade of the world. Their ships were soon to be found in the harbors of Virginia; in the West Indian archipelago; in the south of Africa; among the tropical islands of the Indian Ocean; and even in the remote harbors of China and Japan. Already their trading-houses were planted on the Hudson and the coast of Guinea, in Java and Brazil. One or two rocky islets in the West Indies, in part neglected by the Spaniards as unworthy of culture, were occupied by these daring merchants, and furnished a convenient shelter for a large contraband traffic with the terra firma So great was the naval success of Holland, that it engrossed the commerce of the European Chap. VI.} natio
England (United Kingdom) (search for this): chapter 10
s prohibition was designed to continue in force even after the suppression of all resistance. While, therefore, the navigation act 1651 secured to English ships the entire carrying trade with England, in connection with the ordinance of the preceding year, it conferred a monopoly of colonial commerce. But this state of commercial law was essentially modified by the manner in which the authority of the English commonwealth was established in the Chesapeake. The republican leaders of Great Britain, conducting with true magnanimity, suffered the fever of party to subside, before decisive measures were adopted; and then two of the three commissioners, whom they appointed, were taken from among the planters themselves. The instructions given them were such Sept 26. as Virginians might carry into effect; for they con- Chap VI.} 1651 stituted them the pacificators and benefactors of their country. In case of resistance, the cruelties of war were threatened. Let the reader consu
Ovid (New York, United States) (search for this): chapter 10
nal, on the mines of N. C. XXIII. 8, 9. but definite and accurate as were the accounts, inquiry was always baffled; and the regions of gold remained for two centuries an undiscovered land. Various were the employments by which the calmness of life was relieved. George Sandys, an idle man, who had been a great traveller, and who did not remain in America, a poet, whose verse was tolerated by Dryden and praised by Izaak Walton, beguiled the ennui of his seclusion by translating the whole of Ovid's Metamorphoses. Rymer, XVIII. 676, 677. Walton's Hooker, 32. To the man of leisure, the chase furnished a perpetual resource. It was not long before the horse was multiplied in Virginia; and to improve that noble animal was early an object of pride, soon to be favored by legislation. Speed was especially valued; and the planter's pace became a proverb. Equally proverbial was the hospitality of the Virginians. Labor was valuable; land was cheap; competence promptly followed industry
Cambria (United Kingdom) (search for this): chapter 10
on of the heathen, the organization of the government, and the establishment of justice, the subject of tobacco was never forgotten. The sale of it in England was 1619 May. strictly prohibited, unless the heavy impost had been paid; May 25. Hazard, i. 89. a proclamation enforced the royal decree; Nov. 10. Ibid. 90.Nov and, that the tax might be gathered on the entire consumption, by a new proclamation, Hazard. i. 93. the culture of to- Dec. 30 bacco was forbidden in England and Wales, and the plants already growing were ordered to be uprooted. Nor was it long before the importation and sale of Chap. VI.} 1620 tobacco required a special license from the king. April 7. Hazard, i. 89—91. June 29. Ibid. 93—96. In this manner, a compromise was effected between the interests of the colonial planters and the monarch; the former obtained the exclusive supply of the English market, and the latter succeeded in imposing an exorbitant duty. Stith, 168—170. Chalmers, 50, <
Berkeley County (West Virginia, United States) (search for this): chapter 10
be established. The instructions to Sir William Berkeley do not first order assemblies; but speak of them as of a thing established. At an adjourned session of Berkeley's first legislature, the assembly declares its meeting exceeding customary limits, in this place used. Hening, i. 236. This is a plain declaration, that assemblies were the custom and use of Virginia at the time of Berkeley's arrival. If any doubts remain, it would be easy to multiply arguments and references. Burk, II. App. XLIX. LI. through the agency of their representatives, they levied and appropriated all taxes, Hening, i. 171, Act 38. secured the free industry of their citiHening, i. 300, 301, Act 3. yet ten men were considered a sufficient force to protect a place of danger. Ibid. 285, 286, Act 5. About fifteen months after Berkeley's return from 1646 Oct. England, articles of peace were established between the inhabitants of Virginia and Necotowance, the successor of Opechancanough. Ibi
Jefferson City (Missouri, United States) (search for this): chapter 10
transmits the remembrance of past occurrences, long after every other monument has passed away. Of the labors of the Indians on the soil of Virginia, there remains nothing so respectable as would be a common ditch for the draining of lands; Jefferson's Notes, 132. the memorials of their former existence are found only in the names of the rivers and the mountains. Unchanging nature retains the appellations which were given by those whose villages have disappeared, and whose tribes have becohap. VI.} 1652. have as free trade as the people of England. No taxes, no customs, might be levied, except by their own representatives; no forts erected, no garrisons maintained, but by their own consent. Hening, i. 363—365, and 367, 368. Jefferson's Notes on Virginia. Hazard, i. 560—564. Burk, II. 85—91. In the settlemen of the government, the utmost harmony prevailed between the burgesses and the commissioners: it was the governor and council only, who had any apprehensions for their <
Antigua (Antigua and Barbuda) (search for this): chapter 10
ergy and fearless enthusiasm of republicanism, triumphed over all its enemies in Europe, it turned its attention to the Oct. 3. colonies; and a memorable ordinance Hazard, i. 637, 638. Parliamentary History, III. 1357. The commentary of Chalmers, p. 123, is that of a partisan lawyer. at once empowered the council of state to reduce the rebellious colonies to obedience, and, at the same time, established it as a law, that foreign ships should not trade at any of the ports in Barbadoes, Antigua, Bermudas, and Virginia. Maryland, which was not expressly included in the ordinance, had taken care to acknowledge the new order of things; Langford's Refutation, 6, 7. and Massachusetts, alike unwilling to encounter the hostility of parliament, and jealous of the rights of independent 1651 May 7. legislation, by its own enactment, prohibited all intercourse with Virginia, till the supremacy of the commonwealth should be established; although the order, when it was found to be injurio
China (China) (search for this): chapter 10
th in vain struggles against the liberties of his subjects,—the Dutch, a little confederacy, which had been struck from the side of the vast empire of Spain, a new people, scarcely known as possessed of nationality, had, by their superior skill, begun to engross the carrying trade of the world. Their ships were soon to be found in the harbors of Virginia; in the West Indian archipelago; in the south of Africa; among the tropical islands of the Indian Ocean; and even in the remote harbors of China and Japan. Already their trading-houses were planted on the Hudson and the coast of Guinea, in Java and Brazil. One or two rocky islets in the West Indies, in part neglected by the Spaniards as unworthy of culture, were occupied by these daring merchants, and furnished a convenient shelter for a large contraband traffic with the terra firma So great was the naval success of Holland, that it engrossed the commerce of the European Chap. VI.} nations themselves; English mariners sought emplo
, which had been struck from the side of the vast empire of Spain, a new people, scarcely known as possessed of nationality, had, by their superior skill, begun to engross the carrying trade of the world. Their ships were soon to be found in the harbors of Virginia; in the West Indian archipelago; in the south of Africa; among the tropical islands of the Indian Ocean; and even in the remote harbors of China and Japan. Already their trading-houses were planted on the Hudson and the coast of Guinea, in Java and Brazil. One or two rocky islets in the West Indies, in part neglected by the Spaniards as unworthy of culture, were occupied by these daring merchants, and furnished a convenient shelter for a large contraband traffic with the terra firma So great was the naval success of Holland, that it engrossed the commerce of the European Chap. VI.} nations themselves; English mariners sought employment in Dutch vessels, with which the ports of England were filled; English ships lay rotti
Bristol (United Kingdom) (search for this): chapter 10
, and, practically, all the rights of an independent state, having England for its guardian against foreign oppression, rather than its ruler, Chap. VI.} 1646. the colonists enjoyed all the prosperity which a virgin soil, equal laws, and general uniformity of condition and industry, could bestow. Their numbers increaseed; the cottages were filled with children, as the ports were with ships and emigrants. At Christmas, 1648, there were trading in Virginia, ten ships from London, two from Bristol, twelve Hollanders, and seven from New England. New Description of Virginia, 15, in II. Mass. Hist. Coll. IX. 118. The number of the colonists was already twenty thousand; and they, who had sustained no griefs, were not tempted to engage in the feuds by which the mother country was divided. They were attached to the cause of Charles, not because they loved monarchy, but because they cherished the liberties of which he had left them in the undisturbed possession; and, after his executio
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