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chill, VI. 160—186. Hammond's Leah and Rachel, 16. The faithfulness of the Virginians Chap VI.} 1650 June. did not escape the attention of the royal exile; from his retreat in Breda he transmitted tures in America were at liberty to reject. Hazard, i. 634, 635. The memorable ordinance of 1650 was a war meas- 1650. ure, and extended only to the colonies which had adhered to the Stuarts. 1650. ure, and extended only to the colonies which had adhered to the Stuarts. All intercourse with them was forbidden, except to those who had a license from parliament or the council of state. Foreigners were rigorously excluded; Ibid. 636—638. and this prohibition was desttained unlimited liberty of commerce, which she regulated by independent laws. The ordinance of 1650 was rendered void by the act of capitulation; the navigation act of Cromwell was not designed for infinite wealth were indulged; E. Williams, Virginia, and Virginia's Discovery of Silk-worms, 1650. while the population of Virginia, at the epoch of the restoration, may have been about thirty th
ase of necessity, was forbidden. Chalmers, 132. 133. This system, which the instructions of Berkeley commanded Chap. VI.} him to introduce, was ultimately successful; for it sacrificed no rights but those of the colonists, while it identified the interests of the English merchant and the English government, and leagued them together for the oppression of those, who, for more than a century, were too feeble to offer effectual resistance. The Long Parliament was more just; it attempted 1647. Jan. 23. to secure to English shipping the whole carrying trade of the colonies, but with the free consent of the colonies themselves; offering an equivalent, which the legislatures in America were at liberty to reject. Hazard, i. 634, 635. The memorable ordinance of 1650 was a war meas- 1650. ure, and extended only to the colonies which had adhered to the Stuarts. All intercourse with them was forbidden, except to those who had a license from parliament or the council of state. Fo
May 17th, 1660 AD (search for this): chapter 10
statement is a fiction. The colony of Virginia enjoyed liberties as large as the favored New England; displayed an equal degree of fondness for popular sovereignty, and fearlessly exercised political independence. Compare, for example, Dutch Records, at Albany, XXIV. 302, where Berkeley writes like an independent sovereign. Whatsoever the noble Sir Harry Moody, in his excellent judgment, shall think fit to be done for the good of both colonies, we, on our part, shall firmly ratify. May 17, 1660. The same spirit had prevailed for years Albany Records, IV. 165. There had long existed a republican party; and, now that monarchy had fallen, on whom could the royalists rely so safely as on themselves? The executive officers became elective; and so evident were the designs of all parties to promote an amicable settlement of the government, that Richard Bennett, himself a commissioner of the Chap VI.} 1652. April 30. parliament, and, moreover, a merchant and a Roundhead, was, on the
e English for protection and defence; and a war was vigorously conducted. The aged Opechancanough was taken, yet not till 1646; and the venerated monarch of the sons of the forest, so long the undisputed lord of almost boundless hunting grounds, diecient force to protect a place of danger. Ibid. 285, 286, Act 5. About fifteen months after Berkeley's return from 1646 Oct. England, articles of peace were established between the inhabitants of Virginia and Necotowance, the successor of Opes of an independent state, having England for its guardian against foreign oppression, rather than its ruler, Chap. VI.} 1646. the colonists enjoyed all the prosperity which a virgin soil, equal laws, and general uniformity of condition and industrord's Refutation, 3; Hammond's Leah and Rachel, 21. These, taken together, are conclusive. Bennett was of the council in 1646. Hening, i. 322. The act which constituted the government, claimed April. for the assembly the privilege of defining
repared by the vindictive ferocity of the natives, with whom a state of hostility had been of long continuance. In 1643, it was enacted by the assembly, that no terms of peace should be entertained with the Indians; whom it was usual to distress by sudden marches against their settlements. But the Indians had now heard of 1644 the dissensions in England, and taking counsel of their passions, rather than of their prudence, they resolved on one more attempt at a general massacre Chap. VI.} 1644. believing that, by midnight incursions, the destruction of the cattle and the fields of corn, they might succeed in famishing the remnant of the colonists whom they should not be able to murder by surprise. On the eighteenth day of April, The reader is cautioned against the inaccuracies of Beverley, Oldmixon, and, on this subject, of Burk. See Winthrop's Journal, II. 165. Compare the note of Savage, whose sagacious conjecture is confirmed in Hening, i. 290, Act 4, session of February,
Savage. The sovereignty of Charles had ever been mildly exercised. The condition of contending parties in England had 1643 Mar. now given to Virginia an opportunity of legislation Chap. VI.} 1643. independent of European control; and the volun1643. independent of European control; and the voluntary act of the assembly, restraining religious liberty, adopted from hostility to political innovation, rather than from a spirit of fanaticism, or respect to instructions, proves conclusively the attachment of the representatives of Virginia to theortance to religious sects: to tolerate Puritanism was to nurse a republican party. It was, therefore, specially ordered 1643 Mar that no minister should preach or teach, publicly or privately, except in conformity to the constitutions of the churcs was prepared by the vindictive ferocity of the natives, with whom a state of hostility had been of long continuance. In 1643, it was enacted by the assembly, that no terms of peace should be entertained with the Indians; whom it was usual to distr
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