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days march. Here was an opportunity for a skilful commander, but Burnside decided to make Fredericksburg a base, and to move thence upon Richmond. On Nov. 15, he turned his back upon Lee and marched for Fredericksburg. Meanwhile, he had made some important changes in his organization, by the formation of three grand divisions out of his six corps in order to lessen the routine duties of his office. This organization was not kept up by Burnside's immediate successors, but under Grant in 1864 something equivalent was developed in separate armies and in large corps. Besides the troops shown above, the right grand division comprised two brigades of cavalry and a battery, and each of the others, one brigade of cavalry and a battery. There was also an artillery reserve of 12 batteries, an engineer brigade with the pontoon train, and an escort and a provost guard of infantry and cavalry. On Dec. 10, the return of the army showed present for duty, as follows: — Right Grand Di
December 12th (search for this): chapter 14
Chapter 14: fall of 1862 Political situation. Lincoln orders advance. a Confederate raid. Lincoln dissatisfied. condition of Confederates. reorganization. Lee moves to Culpeper. McClellan succeeded by Burnside. plan of campaign changed. Burnside's strength. Lee's strength. Sumner at Falmouth. non-arrival of pontoons. surrender demanded. earthworks erected. Jackson Arrives. Burnside's plan. Marye's Hill. building the bridges. the bombardment. the crossing made. Dec. 12. the plan changed. Jackson's line. Franklin advances. Gibbon supports Meade. Meade strikes Gregg. the counter-stroke. Jackson's proposed attack. casualties. on the Federal right. the Formations. French and Hancock charge. Howard charges. Sturgis charges. sunken road Reenforced. Griffin's charge. Humphreys's first charge. Humphreys's second charge. Humphreys's report. Tyler's report. Getty's charge. Hawkins's account. a Federal conference. Dec. 14, sharp-shooting. Dec
January 1st (search for this): chapter 14
, rest, reorganization, and supplies were badly needed by both armies, and, as the initiative was now McClellan's, he determined not to move until he was thoroughly prepared. Lincoln had two months before drawn up his Emancipation Proclamation and was waiting for a victory to produce a favorable state of feeling for its issuance. Sharpsburg was now claimed as a victory, and, on Sept. 22, the Proclamation was issued, freeing all slaves in any State which should be in rebellion on the coming Jan. 1. This was supposed to be a war measure, though nothing could have been more void of effect than it proved. McClellan did not approve of the Proclamation, and he let his sentiments on the subject be known, although he issued a very proper order to the army, deprecating political discussion. His attitude, however, alienated him from the administration, and the party in power in Washington. A few days after the battle, Lincoln had visited the army, and, on parting from McClellan, had exp
. But when two weeks had passed, during which great quantities of supplies of all kinds were rushed to the army by every channel, McClellan on Oct. 7 received instructions to cross the Potomac and give battle to the enemy, or drive him south. The army must move now while the roads are good. On receipt of this, McClellan conferred with his chief quartermaster, who thought that sufficient supplies would be on hand within three days. Meanwhile, on Oct. 10 a fresh trouble arose. Stuart with 1800 cavalry and Pelham's battery had been sent by Lee upon a raid. Fording the Potomac, some 15 miles above Williamsport, at dawn on the 10th, by dark Stuart reached Chambersburg, where he burned a machine-shop, many loaded cars, and a supply depot, paroled 285 sick and wounded Federals, and gathered about 500 horses. Next morning he moved to Emmitsburg, and thence below the mouth of the Monocacy, where he recrossed the Potomac, on the forenoon of the 12th. The distance travelled had been 126
d forward from the wood 100 yards when the enemy's artillery reopened, and so completely swept our front as to satisfy me that the proposed movement should be abandoned. A. P. Hill's division, which bore the brunt of the fighting on the 13th, out of 11,000, lost 2122 men. Early's, which came to his support, lost 932 out of 7500. The other divisions lost less than 200 each, principally from the heavy artillery fire which the enemy threw into the woods. Meade's division, out of 5000, lost 1853, and Gibbon lost 1267. So the casualties of the two fighting divisions on each side were nearly balanced; the Confederate loss being 3054 out of about 18,500 engaged, and the Federal, 3120 out of about 10,000 engaged. We will now take up affairs at Fredericksburg. In his plans on the 12th, Burnside had not proposed a direct attack from the town, but on the 13th, as already told, had directed Sumner to prepare to assault Marye's Hill with at least two divisions, but Battlefield of Fred
December 15th (search for this): chapter 14
12. the plan changed. Jackson's line. Franklin advances. Gibbon supports Meade. Meade strikes Gregg. the counter-stroke. Jackson's proposed attack. casualties. on the Federal right. the Formations. French and Hancock charge. Howard charges. Sturgis charges. sunken road Reenforced. Griffin's charge. Humphreys's first charge. Humphreys's second charge. Humphreys's report. Tyler's report. Getty's charge. Hawkins's account. a Federal conference. Dec. 14, sharp-shooting. Dec. 15, Burnside Retreats. flag of truce. casualties. New plans. the mud march. Burnside relieved. After the battle of Sharpsburg, rest, reorganization, and supplies were badly needed by both armies, and, as the initiative was now McClellan's, he determined not to move until he was thoroughly prepared. Lincoln had two months before drawn up his Emancipation Proclamation and was waiting for a victory to produce a favorable state of feeling for its issuance. Sharpsburg was now claimed as a
October 27th (search for this): chapter 14
's Battalion, 3 Batteries Nelson's Battalion, 3 Batteries Total 36 Guns718 Aggregate38 Brigades Infantry, 4 Brigades Cavalry, 63 Batteries, 255 Guns71,472 On Oct. 27 Lee moved with Longstreet's corps and Pendleton's reserve arty. toward the eastern slope of the Blue Ridge. My reserve ordnance train moved on the 29th via Nineck of cordiality between McClellan and the President, and the growth of mistrust of the former's intention to prosecute the active offensive campaign desired. On Oct. 27 he had telegraphed the President urging the necessity of filling the old regiments with drafted men before taking them into action again. The tone of his lettersin its camps. His backdown had come too late. He had been removed from the command on Nov. 7, and Burnside substituted in his place. McClellan's promises of Oct. 27 might have satisfied President Lincoln, but there were strong influences now determined upon a change, and which wanted not only the head of McClellan, but that o
October 26th (search for this): chapter 14
rmy of the Potomac and Washington, McClellan would have nothing to do but to attack him in the rear. Soon after Stuart's raid, he suggested that if the enemy had more occupation south of the river, his cavalry would not be so likely to make raids north of it. And on Oct. 25, he telegraphed McClellan in reply to a despatch about sore-tongued and fatigued horses, Will you pardon me for asking what the horses of your army have done, since the battle of Antietam, that fatigues anything? On Oct. 26, McClellan put his army in motion, 19 days after his receipt of the President's order. By this time he was willing to adopt the line of advance east of the Blue Ridge, as the stage of water in the Potomac River now made all fords impracticable. The crossing was made at Berlin, about 10 miles below Harper's Ferry. Pontoon bridges were laid, and the army crossed over rather leisurely, the last of it, Franklin's corps, on Nov. 1 and 2. We will now return to the Confederates, who, since S
October 25th (search for this): chapter 14
the Confederates needed them much more. In Lincoln's practical style, he often made pertinent suggestions to McClellan and would sometimes mingle with them a touch of sarcasm. He wrote that if Lee should cut in between the Army of the Potomac and Washington, McClellan would have nothing to do but to attack him in the rear. Soon after Stuart's raid, he suggested that if the enemy had more occupation south of the river, his cavalry would not be so likely to make raids north of it. And on Oct. 25, he telegraphed McClellan in reply to a despatch about sore-tongued and fatigued horses, Will you pardon me for asking what the horses of your army have done, since the battle of Antietam, that fatigues anything? On Oct. 26, McClellan put his army in motion, 19 days after his receipt of the President's order. By this time he was willing to adopt the line of advance east of the Blue Ridge, as the stage of water in the Potomac River now made all fords impracticable. The crossing was made
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