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Browsing named entities in a specific section of The Photographic History of The Civil War: in ten volumes, Thousands of Scenes Photographed 1861-65, with Text by many Special Authorities, Volume 7: Prisons and Hospitals. (ed. Francis Trevelyan Miller). Search the whole document.

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oner for exchange, but assumed the title and duties of commissioner. At first, the Confederate authorities refused to treat with General Butler, but finally Secretary Seddon, on April 28, 1864, wrote: It may well excite surprise and indignation that the Government of the United States should select for any position of dignity and be sent home in time to vote, and also that all whose time had expired be released. The Confederacy would thus be relieved of the burden of their support. Secretary Seddon evidently considered the matter seriously, for he writes, It presents a great embarrassment, but I see no remedy which is not worse than the evil, and did not issue the order. This endorsement was made upon a letter from a citizen of South Carolina, dated September 21, 1864, and forwarded to Secretary Seddon with the tacit approval at least, of Governor Bonham. Previously, on September 9th, Alexander H. Stephens had suggested the release of the Andersonville prisoners, to General
E. A. Hitchcock (search for this): chapter 1.4
to Washington and a volunteer officer, Lieutenant-Colonel William H. Ludlow, was appointed agent for exchange. General E. A. Hitchcock was appointed commissioner for exchange, with headquarters in Washington. Almost immediately there were diffi to do even police duty, claiming that they would perform no soldiers' work until they were formally exchanged. General E. A. Hitchcock was the Federal commissioner of exchange in the East. It was due largely to the efforts of General Lorenzo Thomis position as adjutant-general to act as agent in the East. Colonel C. C. Dwight General Lew Wallace General E. A. Hitchcock General Lorenzo Thomas The cause of this strong language was the order issued by Secretary Stanton, on Jroe, was, at his own suggestion, created a special agent for exchange, and from that time onward made no reports to General Hitchcock, commissioner for exchange, but assumed the title and duties of commissioner. At first, the Confederate authoritie
nst pressure to which a weaker man would have yielded. Conditions in Andersonville and other Southern prisons were, by this time, well known. The Confederate authorities, finding it more Where the prisoners longed to be exchanged This view of Andersonville, though not taken at the time when the prison was most crowded, gives some idea of the conditions. Practically no room was left for streets, though there was an opening for the wagons carrying rations. This was ironically called Broadway. The cemetery at Andersonville prison The failure of negotiations for exchange of prisoners in 1864 was responsible for many of these rows of prisoners' graves. and more difficult to secure provisions for prisoners and army, allowed five non-commissioned officers to go through the lines bearing a petition from the prisoners at Andersonville, setting forth the conditions there and asking for exchange; but to no purpose. Nor was the protest of the commissioned officers more successful,
agreements for more than a year longer. In the West, many thousands were exchanged by Colonel C. C. Dwight, on the part of the United States, and Lieutenant-Colonel N. G. Watts and Major Ignatius Szymanski, on the part of the Confederacy. Generals Sherman and Hood also exchanged some prisoners afterward taken by their respective commands, and other special agreements between commanders in the field were made. Meanwhile, though the cartel of 1862 declared that all captures must be reduced twhich liberates all prisoners taken, we will have to fight on until the whole South is exterminated. If we hold those caught, they amount to no more than dead men. At this particular time to release all rebel prisoners in the North would insure Sherman's defeat and would compromise our safety here. The next day a letter to Secretary Seward closes with the following sentence, We have got to fight until the military power of the South is exhausted, and if we release or exchange prisoners capt
, therefore, General Samuel Cooper, adjutant-general of the Confederacy, issued General Orders No. 54, on August 1, 1862. After referring to Secretary Stanton's order, and General Pope's order already mentioned, together with the action of General Steinwehr, who, it was asserted, had arrested private citizens in Virginia with the threat that they would be put to death if any of his soldiers were killed, the order declares that all these things taken together show a disposition to violate all the rules and usages of war and to convert the hostilities waged against armed forces into a campaign of robbery and murder against unarmed citizens and peaceful tillers of the soil. It was therefore announced that General Pope and General Steinwehr, and all commissioned officers serving under them, are hereby specially declared to be not entitled to be considered as soldiers, and therefore not entitled to the benefit of the cartel for the parole of future prisoners of war. General Lee, appa
S. A. Meredith (search for this): chapter 1.4
ar. His relations with Colonel William H. Ludlow, the Federal agent of exchange, were always pleasant. Though they frequently clashed, it was as lawyers seeking to gain advantages for their clients, and without personal animosity. With General S. A. Meredith, who succeeded Colonel Ludlow, Colonel Ould was at odds; he preferred to deal with Major Mulford, the assistant agent. He refused to treat with General Butler at first, but finally opened negotiations with him. Colonel Ould had one advand made similar declarations. Colonel Ould furnished a schedule of captures, some of which were pronounced legitimate while the validity of others was denied. When his paroles were exhausted all further exchanges ceased for a time. Brigadier-General S. A. Meredith succeeded Colonel Ludlow as agent A glad sight for the prisoners On top of the gentle slope rising from the river at Aiken's Landing stands the dwelling of A. M. Aiken, who gave the locality his name. For a short time in 1
William H. Ludlow (search for this): chapter 1.4
d for a short time as Assistant Secretary of War. His relations with Colonel William H. Ludlow, the Federal agent of exchange, were always pleasant. Though they frand without personal animosity. With General S. A. Meredith, who succeeded Colonel Ludlow, Colonel Ould was at odds; he preferred to deal with Major Mulford, the ass, General Thomas returned to Washington and a volunteer officer, Lieutenant-Colonel William H. Ludlow, was appointed agent for exchange. General E. A. Hitchcock was ed men went on as usual, though marked by much mutual recrimination between Colonel Ludlow and Colonel Ould. Special exchanges were sometimes effected, although Colo which Colonel Ould declared that mutual consent was not necessary and that Colonel Ludlow had made similar declarations. Colonel Ould furnished a schedule of capturer exchanges ceased for a time. Brigadier-General S. A. Meredith succeeded Colonel Ludlow as agent A glad sight for the prisoners On top of the gentle slop
Robert E. Lee (search for this): chapter 1.4
des, took place during the summer of 1862 between General Lee and General McClellan. On the 6th of June, a ween was issued from Washington, and was accepted by General Lee on the 17th. On the 9th of July, General Lee proGeneral Lee proposed to release General McClellan's wounded on parole, and the offer was accepted by General McClellan. Finduring the War of 1812 was suggested as a basis. General Lee was informed of General Dix's appointment on Julyays after it was signed, President Davis wrote to General Lee, on July 31st, saying, Scarcely had that cartel btel for the parole of future prisoners of war. General Lee, apparently against his will, was instructed to custified from his standpoint. He felt that to give Lee forty thousand additional men might prolong the war i as their resources were dwindling alarmingly. General Lee, on October 1, 1864, again proposed an exchange tsoldiers who had been slaves would be exchanged. General Lee, acting under instructions, wrote that negroes be
George B. McClellan (search for this): chapter 1.4
the exchange of certain individuals, those who had no influential friends would be left in prison. On a letter of General McClellan proposing an exchange, the Confederate Secretary of War, G. W. Randolph, Colonel Robert Ould Confederate agent frespondence, marked by perfect courtesy on both sides, took place during the summer of 1862 between General Lee and General McClellan. On the 6th of June, a week after the battle of Seven Pines, or Fair Oaks, a general order that surgeons should be from Washington, and was accepted by General Lee on the 17th. On the 9th of July, General Lee proposed to release General McClellan's wounded on parole, and the offer was accepted by General McClellan. Finally, on the 12th of July, General JohnGeneral McClellan. Finally, on the 12th of July, General John A. Dix was authorized by Secretary Stanton to negotiate for the exchange, but was cautioned in every possible way to avoid any recognition of the Confederate Government. The cartel in force between the United States and Great Britain during the Wa
War Cameron advising the appointment of a commissarygen-eral of prisoners. In the West, Generals Halleck and Grant turned over a On the way to freedom—exchanged Confederate prisoners bound for e officials at Washington, urging them to arrange for an exchange, and on December 3, 1861, General Halleck wrote that the prisoners ought to be exchanged, as it was simply a convention, and the fact will, was instructed to convey copies of President Davis' letter and the general orders to General Halleck. These were returned by General Halleck as being couched in insulting language, and were nGeneral Halleck as being couched in insulting language, and were never put into force, as General Pope's authority in Virginia The white flag boat that carried prisoners to freedom Lying at the wharf is the Federal flag-of-truce boat New York, which carried eis' proclamation was practically endorsed by the Confederate Congress, and on May 25, 1863, General Halleck ordered all exchanges stopped. The double-turreted monitor Onondaga off the exchange la
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