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STEMS IN SIGMA (ες, ας, ος

263. Stems in sigma are contracted where ς falls out between the vowel of the stem and the vowel of the ending (120). Thus, γένος race, gen. γενες-ος γένους, dat. γενες-ι γένει, cp. Lat. genus gener-is (for genes-is), gener-i.

a. The masculine and feminine accusative plural, when it is contracted, borrows the form of the contracted nominative plural. -εις is not derived from -εας. In the dative plural the union of ς of the stem and ς of the ending produces σς, which is reduced to ς without lengthening the preceding vowel (107).

b. Masculine stems in ες with the nominative in -ης are proper names; the feminine τριήρης trireme is an adjective used substantively (properly, triply fitted; τριήρης (ναῦς) ‘ship with three banks of oars’).

c. Neuters with stems in ες have -ος in the nominative, accusative, and vocative singular; neuters with stems in ας have -ας in these cases.

d. Some stems in ας have also a stem in ατ or α_τ (258).


Σωκράτης Socrates Δημοσθένης Demosthenes

τριήρηςτὸ γένοςτὸ γέρας

N. A. V.τριήρε-ετριήρειγένε-εγένειγέρα-εγέρα_
G. D.τριηρέ-οιντριήροινγενέ-οινγενοῖνγερά-οινγερῷν

N. V.τριήρε-εςτριήρειςγένε-αγένηγέρα-αγέρα_
Dat.τριήρεσ-σιτριήρεσινγένεσ-σιγένεσινγέρασ-σιγέρασιν )</

Διογένης Diogenes, Ἱπποκράτης Hippocrates. Neuters: ἔτος year, εὖρος width, ξίφος sword, τεῖχος wall, γῆρας old age, κρέας flesh (for κέρας horn see 258).

a. Proper names in -ης have recessive accent in the vocative.

b. Proper names in -γένης, -κράτης, -μένης, -φάνης, etc., may have an accus. in -ην derived from the first declension. Thus, Σωκράτην, Ἀριστοφάνην, like Ἀτρείδην (222, 282 N.). But names in -κλῆς (265) have only -εα_.

c. Proper names in -ης often show -εος, -εα in the lyric parts of tragedy.

d. Neuters in -ος often show open forms (especially -εων) in Attic poetry. -εων is frequent in Xenophon.

e. τριήροιν and τριήρων have irregular accent by analogy to the other forms.

f. A preceding ρ does not prevent the contraction of εα to η, as ὄρη from τὸ ὄρος mountain (cp. 31. 1).

g. The dat. sing. of ας stems is properly -α^ι; but - is often written on the authority of the ancient grammarians. This may possibly be due to the analogy of in α_ stems.

264 D. 1. Hom. uses the open or the closed forms according to convenience. -ευς occurs in the gen. of a few words in -ος (βέλευς); -εων is often a monosyllable (60), as is the accus. sing. and pl. -εα from nom. -ης or -ος. Hdt. has open -εος, -εα, -εες (?), -εα. In the dat. pl. Hom. has βέλεσσι, βέλεσι, and βελέεσσι (250 D. 2) from βέλος missile.

2. Stems in ας are generally uncontracted in Hom. (γήραος, γήραϊ), but we find -αι in the dat. sing., κρεῶν and κρειῶν in the gen. pl. In the nom. and acc. pl. α is short (γέρα^), and this is sometimes the case even in Attic poetry (κρέα^). The explanation is obscure (γέρα^ does not stand for γέρα᾽). Hom. has δέπασσι and δεπάεσσι (δέπας cup).

3. In Hom. and Hdt. several words in -ας show ε for α before a vowel (cp. ὁρέω in Hdt. for ὁράω). Hom.: οὖδας ground, οὔδεος, οὔδεϊ and οὔδει; κῶας fleece, κώεα, κώεσι; Hdt.: γέρας, γέρεος, but κρέας, κρέως, κρεῶν. In Attic poetry: βρέτας image, βρέτεος, βρέτει, etc. Cp. 258 D.

265. When -εσ- of the stem is preceded by ε, the forms are inflected as follows: τὸ δέος fear (δεεσ-), Περικλῆς from Περικλέης Pericles (Περικλεεσ-):

So Ἡρακλῆς Heracles, Σοφοκλῆς Sophocles.

a. After ε, εα contracts to α_ (56). On the contraction of -εεος, see 55.

b. δέος is uncontracted because the form was originally δε[ιγλιδε]ος (58).

265 D. Hom. has κλέα (for κλέα᾽?), and from -κλῆς: -ῆος, -ῆι; Hdt.: -έος (for -έεος), -έϊ, -εα^. For -ῆος, -ῆα the open -έεος, -έεα may be read. Attic poetry often has the open forms -έης (also in prose inscrip.), -έει, -εες.

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