147. 10.177 STAMNOS from Cumae PLATE LXXXIl, 3 and PLATE LXXXIIIHeight 0.381. A, Jb. 26 p. 133 (Studniczka); side-view, Jacobsthal O. p. 101, a; A, Simon Die Geburt der Aphrodite p. 76. A, Psychostasia. B, old man, man, and youth. About 470-460 B.C., by the Syracuse Painter (ARV.1 p. 352 no. 1; ARV.2 p. 518 no. 1). Studniczka gives the provenience as Capua, but in error. In the twenty-second book of the Iliad, near the end of the fight between Achilles and Hector, Zeus took a golden balance and placed two Κῆρε θανάτοιο, banes or dooms of death, in the scales, one for Hector, and one for Achilles. He raised the balance, and the doom of Hector sank. Then Apollo, who had been helping Hector, abandoned him. The word κῆρ may be rendered 'doom' or 'bane', often thought of personally as a destructive spirit. In the lines just quoted, for the sake of simplicity we translated 'the doom of Hector sank': but what the poet says is 'the fated day, αἴσιμον ἦμαρ, of Hector sank'. This 'αἴσιμον ἦμαρ' is evidently equivalent, or practically so, to the κῆρ just placed in the scale. Hector had previously said that he feared not, for no man would send him to Hades above and beyond fate: “οὐ γάρ τίς μ᾽ ὑπὲρ αἶσαν ἀνὴρ Ἄιδι προιάψει.
” Except it be the appointed hour. Well, the appointed hour has come. Later, we hear of 'Zeus with the balance' in the trilogy of Aeschylus that dealt with the hero Memnon, son of Eos. All that remains of the tragedy Memnon, the first in the trilogy, is two or three detached lines; of the Psychostasia, the play that followed the Memnon, all we have is four words; but we have also a few brief allusions to two great scenes or tableaux in it. The lexicographer Pollux, speaking of stage-terms, says: 'On the theologeion [platform of the gods] which is above the skene [the stage-building] deities appear on high, like Zeus and those about him in the Psychostasia.' Plutarch provides a few more particulars: Zeus held a balance containing [not the Keres this time but] the psychai [souls or rather lives] of Achilles and Memnon, while Thetis and Eos, the divine mothers of the two heroes, stood one on each side of Zeus entreating him to spare their sons. The date of the Memnonian trilogy is not known. The utmost limits are the beginning of the fifth century, when the first plays of Aeschylus were produced, and 456, the year of his death. Our trilogy can hardly have been very early, and it has been thought to be late on the ground that three speaking actors were needed for the Psychostasia scene — Eos, Thetis, and Zeus. But is it likely that Zeus spoke? In any case we have nine vase-paintings with the Psychostasia of Achilles and Memnon, and some of them, are earlier than Aeschylus's trilogy can have been, and indeed than his first appearance as a writer for the stage. The psychai are represented as tiny figures, one in each scale: thrice as winged and unarmed; but more often as warriors in the attitude of attack. The unarmed figures are usually taken to be Keres, but they are most probably Psychai like the tiny warriors in the other pictures.1 The Psychostasia appears on the following vases:
- Eastern Greek
- 1. Villa Giulia, bf. hydria. Annuario 24-26 pll. 3-6 and p. 49. One cannot tell from the reproductions what is in the scales, and there is no word in the text. On the style see Villard in Mon. Piot 43 p. 551.
- 2. Vienna 3619 (ex Vienna, Oest. Mus. 235), bf. dinos. Archiv für Religionswissenschaft 36 pl. 2 (Wüst); Simon Geburt p. 74. By the Painter of the Vatican Mourner (ABV. p. 140 no. 3).
- 3. London B 639, bf. lekythos by the Sappho Painter (Haspels ABL. p. 227 no. 28). Murray, History of Greek Sculpture 2 p. 28 fig. 1, whence Roscher s.v. Keren p. 1142 fig. 1 and Jb. 26 p. 132. Later than the two rf. vases 4 and 5.
- 4. Paris, Cab. Méd. 385 and Bonn 143b, frr. of a rf. volute-krater by the Kleophrades Painter (ARV.1 p 124 nos. 43 and 80; ARV.2 p. 186 no. 50). The Paris part, Kl. pl. 2 and pl. 30, 6; the Bonn fragment, ibid. pl. 20, 2, and CV. pl. 17, 4. The remains of Thetis are not quite so close to Zeus as in my drawing.
- 5. VilIa Giulia 57912, rf. cup by Epiktetos (ARV.1 p. 46 no. 21; ARV.2 p. 72 no. 24). Arti figurative 2 pll. 1-8 (Ciotti); detail of A, Enciclopedia dell' Arte Antica i p. 280; A, Simon Geburt p. 75.
- 6. Boston, our stamnos.
- 7. Louvre CA 2243, rf. Nolan amphora by the Nikon Painter (ARV.1 p. 442 no. 10; ARV.2 p. 651 no. 11). CV. pl. 49, 7-9; A, phot. Giraudon, whence Histoire générale des religions p. 193 (as 'Hermes weighing the souls of the dead'); A, Simon Geburt p. 77.
- 8. Louvre G 399, rf. cup. Mon. 6-7 pl. 5a, whence (A) Roscher s.v. Psychai p. 3225, whence Jb. 26, 134; Pottier pl. 140; A, Simon Geburt p. 79; phots. Giraudon. Peculiar, amateurish style.
- 9. Leyden 26 f. 41, rf. neck-amphora by the Ixion Painter (JHS. 63 p. 95 no. 11). Passeri pll. 262-3; Millin pll. 19-22, whence Overbeck Gall. pl. 22, 7; A, Simon Geburt p. 81.
F. P. Franklin, AJA 60 (1956), p. 57; Brommer 1960, p. 261, no. B 3; Alscher 1963, p. 118, note 189; C. C. van Essen, BABesch 39 (1964), p. 127, note 14; E. Vermeule 1965, fig. 33; Zanker 1965, p. 35, note 148; Philippaki 1967, p. 59, pl. 64; Para., p. 382, no. 1; Brommer 1973, p. 352, no. B 4; C. Sourvinou-Inwood, JHS 94 (1974), p. 127, note 14; Moon 1979, p. 177, under no. 100 (A. Perkins); Vermeule 1979, p. 246, note 22; A. D. Trendall and I. McPhee, Art Bulletin of Victoria 21 (1980), p. 19, fig. 19; Fischer-Graf 1980, p. 20; LIMC, I, 1, pp. 173-174 (no. 800), 200, I, 2, pl. 135, illus. (A. Kossatz-Deissmann); Beazley Addenda 1, p. 124; CVA, Tübingen, 4, p. 44, under no. 67.5806 (E. Böhr); V. Brinkmann, BCH 109 (1985), p. 120; LIMC, III, 1, pp. 781 (no. 297), 785-786 (C. Weiss); Beazley Addenda 2, p. 253; Schefold & Jung 1989, pp. 250, 395, note 541; LIMC, V, 1, p. 338, no. 626 (G. Siebert).