(Oiniandos) Cilicia Campestris, Turkey.
Mainly identified with large site 91 km SE
of Adana and ca. 6 km W of Erzin on the right side of
railroad track to Iskenderun. The otherwise unknown
native town of Oiniandos was renamed for Antiochos IV
Epiphanes at the beginning of the 2d c. B.C. After a shortlived autonomy, Epiphaneia was colonized with ex-pirates
by Pompey and adopted 68/7 B.C. as its era date. A coin
of A.D. 113/4 suggests that the city was honored by Trajan
with his name, but Epiphaneia's history is otherwise
obscure apart from its claim, with many other places, to
be the birthplace of St. George.
The extensive ruins of the city, constructed almost entirely of black basalt, were enclosed by a wall 2 m thick
with large square towers at intervals throughout its
length. Very conspicuous is the long aqueduct of which
numerous arches still remain, with a part of the watercourse still draining into a cistern with walls nearly 1.5
m thick. The theater, with a diameter of ca. 87 m, has
been robbed of its seating, but retains its upper promenade of 12 m width, this upper part being strengthened
by buttresses at intervals of 5.5 m. There are two ruined
churches, both apparently of the 5th or 6th c.; one of
these may have been originally a pagan building with
walls of stone orthostats to which a concrete apse had
later been added at the E end of the rectangle.
. 96; Plin. HN
R. Heberdey & A. Wilhelm, “Reisen in Kilikien,” Wien.
. 44 (1896) 23; D. Magie, Roman Rule in Asia
(1950) 280, 300, 397, 595, 1159; A.H.M. Jones,
Cities of the Eastern Roman Provinces
(2d ed. 1971)
201, 203, 436.