ἐπεὶ δέ does not correspond with any antecedent μέν clause, as οἱ δέ (8. 1) and Μαρδόνιος δέ (9. 1). There is more of a break, or pause, between Bks. 6 and 7 than between 7 and 8, or 8 and 9. The patronymic added to Δαρεῖον just below, and the absence of any reference to the previous description of events here enumerated, further emphasize the original or potential independence of the present opening. It may even be that originally this Book opened with a short proem, transferred (not without some modification perhaps) to the opening, or preface, of the whole work, where it now stands (1. 1). On the whole argument in regard to the genesis of the work see further, Introduction, §§ 7-10.

ἀγγελίη ἀπίκετο, by the process described 8. 98; cp. note there.

τὸν Ὑστάσπεος. The use of the patronymic may simply be for the sake of emphasis, or solemnity; cp. 1. 45 for a conspicuous example; but still it serves, with other items, to maik the new beginning, which may have been the old beginning, in the work of Hdt. See further, Introduction, § 7.

τὴν ἐς Σάρδις ἐσβολήν: perhaps an historic phrase, and not one coined by Hdt. for the occasion. The Lydian satrapy, as Stein (on 3. 120) points out, was known to the Persians as Cparda= Σάρδεις: cp. Thuc. 1. 115. 4. The story is told by Hdt. 5. 89 ff., but there is no express reference here to that passage. Cp. the mention of Egypt infra. The absence of such cross references in these Books suppoits the view that they are of earlier composition than Books 1-6. Cp. Introduction, § 7.

τότε, sc. ἐπεὶ ἀγγελίη ἀπίκετο, κτλ.

δεινότερα ἐποίεε. There was really little left him to do, at least symbolically, to manifest his wiath, if the story of the Bow-shot, the Prayer, and the Mentor, connected in tradition with the news of the sack of Sardes in 498 B.C. (Hdt. 5. 105), is to be believed. That story could not well have been connected with the news of Marathon for two reasons: (1) it treated the Athenians as an unknown quantity to Dareios; (2) Marathon was not, except in the eyes of the Athenians, so very great or significant an achievement (cp. Appendix X. to my edition of Bks. IV.-VI.: 1895). Still, the omission of any specific action to set forth the wrath of Dareios upon this occasion leaves the Herodotean phrase vague and unsatisfactory. This defect, however, does not justify the substitution of ἐποιέετο for the active form of the verb. It appears, however, plainly in the sequel that Dareios (according to Hdt.) intended to conduct the reinvasion of Hellas in person (cp. Hdt. 4. 1).

ἐπηγγέλλετο. The Herodotean uses of this word are observable; cp. c. 29 infra, 8. 25; also 4. 119, 4. 200, 6. 9, 5. 98, 6. 139 et al. πέμπων ἀγγέλους is pleonastic (Stein). ἄγγελος in Hdt.= πρεσβευτής (or πρέσβυς, an ἄπαξ λ. in 3. 58).

κατὰ πόλις without ἔθνεα betrays a too exclusively Hellenic preoccupation; cp. c. 8 infra. The phrase in any case is double-edged, qualifying ἑτοιμάζειν (at least inferentially) as well as πέμπων ἀγγέλους.

ἑκάστοισι: each set of men, ‘each nation’ (hence the plural).

πρότερον. If παρέχειν be retained the meaning may be (with Stein) that the demand to be made on this occasion was in excess of the normal or prescribed levy, the expression implying that there was a standard levy for the militia (of which nothing is said in 3. 89 ff.). The reading is in doubt; perhaps it is best to omit παρέχειν altogether (with van H.). Even if we read παρέχειν (with Stein) we need not adopt Stein's interpretation, παρέχειν being epexegetical merely. πρότερον may cover not only the Marathonian campaign, but all others, the Scythian included, for which the levy had been (ex hypothesi) 700,000. Cp. 4. 87.

καὶ πλοῖα is not quite a sound reading, but it is by no means superfluous even after νέας, as the πλοῖα comprise the transports (cp. ἱππαγωγά cc. 21 and 97 infra; σιταγωγά cc. 186, 191 infra).

τούτων δὲ περιαγγελλομένων does not form a strict antithesis to αὐτίκα μὲν ἐπηγγέλλετο just above; τετάρτῳ δὲ ἔτεϊ just below rather demands ἐπὶ τρία μὲν ἔτεα. The exact text is in some doubt (vide Apparatus above), but in any case the antitheses are not fully or correctly worked out. τούτων is rather vague; περιαγγ. passive.

ἐδονέετο, though perhaps a poetic word, is used by Hdt. 4. 2 in an absolutely prosaic connexion.

τρία ἔτεα<*> τετάρτῳ δέ. Strictly speaking, the three years should count from the despatch of the king's message. On the chronology cp. c. 20 infra.

τῶν ἀρίστων rather tends to qualify the maximum numbers; cp. 8. 113. But is there some confusion underlying the term? Cp. c. 8 infra.

ὡς, ‘as it was against Hellas’ (Blakesley).

ὑπὸ Καμβύσεω δ. The omission of any reference to the story in 3. 1-38 is no difficulty, on the supposition that this passage was of earlier composition; cp. Introduction, § 7.

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