The Black Horse cavalry.
The Black Horse Cavalry was organized, or rather first set in line, by Captain D. H. Jones
, United States Army, afterward a Confederate general, at Waterloo
, on the Rappahannock river
, in Farquier county, Virginia, on the 18th of June, 1859, the anniversary of the battle of Waterloo
On that day, so auspicious for liberties of mankind, did this command come into existence which was destined to act so distinguished and important a part in the prolonged effort to establish the independence of a Southern Republic.
Already had the storm-cloud began to gather, the hurricane to lower in the distance, and the organization of the Black
Horse Cavalry was the first step which was taken in Fauquier county
to meet the prognosticated war. The first captain elected was John Scott
, a planter, residing in the neighborhood of Warrenton
, and the author of “The lost principle.”
, a young lawyer of the Warrenton
bar, was chosen first lieutenant; Charles H. Gordon
, a planter, residing near Bealton, was elected second lieutenant.
The noncommissioned officers were: William R. Smith
, first sergeant, who was during the war elected a lieutenant of the command, and was afterward one of the most distinguished captains of Mosby
's Partisan Battalion, but was killed, sword in hand, in a night attack on a Federal camp at Harper's Ferry
; James H. Childs
was elected second sergeant; Richard Lewis
was elected third sergeant; Robert Mitchell
was elected fourth sergeant.
The corporals were: Wellington Millon
, Madison Tyler
, N. A. Clopton
, and M. K. James
These were all young gentlemen of the first respectability, and were either themselves planters or
the sons of planters.
The rank and file were composed of young men of the same social material with the officers.
Among then were to be found James Keith
, now well known as one of the ablest and most distinguished judges in Virginia
, and William H. Payne
, a leading member of the Virginia
bar, who, during the war, rose to be a brigadier general in Stuart
's cavalry division.
Another, a young lawyer of brilliant promise, was Thomas Gordon Pollock
, the son of the author of “The Exode
,” a sublime production, and on his mother's side was sprung from the heroic blood of the Lees.
During the war he was transferred, with the rank of captain, to the staff of Brigadier General James L. Kemper
, and fell in storming Cemetery Heights.
When it was discovered, in the spring of 1860, that the law allowed a third lieutenant to the command, an election was held in the town of Warrenton
to fill the vacant post.
There were several candidates, but the captain requested the men to elect A. D. Payne
, which was done; for at that early period he discerned in him those high military qualities which, in the field, he afterward displayed.
He has survived the war, and is now a distinguished member of the Warrenton
The first service which the command was ordered to perform was to report to Governor Henry A. Wise
, at Charlestown, Virginia
, at which point were being collected the volunteer companies of the State
to insure the execution of John Brown
and his associates.
When the command reached Piedmont station
, now Delaplane
, on the Manassas Railroad, it fell in with the “Mountain Rangers,” a cavalry company, which Captain Turner Ashby
, afterward so brilliant a figure in the Confederate army, had recruited in Upper Fanquier.
Together these companies marched by night, fording the deep and rapid Shenandoah
, and reported at daylight the next mooring to the Governor
A detachment of the Black Horse
escorted the prisoners to the place of execution, while the rest of the command was employed in keeping clear the streets, for it was feared even at the last moment that an attempt would be made to rescue Brown
Upon the return of the command to Warrenton
, the ladies of that patriotic town received them graciously, and gave in their honor a handsome ball.
So early was the strong and lasting covenant made between the women and the soldiers of the South
The John Brown
war, as the people called it, gave an immense impulse to the secession sentiment of Virginia
, and when South Carolina
seceded and coercion was talked of, the captain of the Black Horse
immediately tendered his command to Governor
This act proved to be in advance of the popular feeling, and many murmurs were excited; but it was ratified by the command at its next meeting.
About the time of the formation of the Southern Republic
, at Montgomery
, fearing that Virginia
would not take part in the movement, the captain of the Black Horse
relinquished his command, and was commissioned captain in the army of the Confederate States
On the 16th of April, 1861, the day before the Ordinance of Secession was passed by Virginia
, orders were received by Lieutenant Randolph
, commanding the Black
Horse Cavalry, and by Captain Ashby
, to assemble their respective commands and proceed, without delay, to Harper's Ferry
The object of this expedition was to capture the stores and munitions of war collected at that place, so necessary to the Confederates
in the struggle in which they were about to engage.
Success depended upon secresy and dispatch, and every available means was employed to collect the commands.
By ten o'clock at night the Black Horse
had left their homes, not to return for four weary years-many of them never.
With light hearts they marched, in happy ignorance of the future, until, when within a few miles of their destination, they heard the explosion of the arsenal.
When this sound fell on their ears, they felt that they had been thwarted in the object of the expedition.
But on their arrival things were found not so bad as apprehension had painted.
The rifle works on the Shenandoah
, it is true, were entirely destroyed, but the fire in the musket machine-shops had been arrested after about a third of the machinery had been wholly or partially destroyed.
The building in which the manufactured arms were deposited contained over twenty thousand stand of Minnie rifles and rifled muskets, of which about seven thousand fell into the hands of the captors uninjured, and many others in a condition that admitted of repair.
A large proportion of the hands employed were sent, with the uninjured machinery, to an armory established in North Carolina
The Black Horse Cavalry, after remaining several days on picket duty at Harper's Ferry
, was ordered on similar service, to Berlin bridge, which crosses the Potomac
from the county of London
It was while the command were at Harper's Ferry
that Major Thomas J. Jackson
, of the Virginia Military Institute, was ordered, by Governor Letcher
, to take command, and the high reputation which he had won in the Mexican
war inspired the volunteers with cheerfulness and confidence.
From Berlin bridge, the Black Horse
was ordered back to Warrenton
, where the vacant captaincy was filled by the election of
William H. Payne
, heretofore, as before stated, a private in the command.
This gentleman was, at that time, a member of the Warrenton
bar, and had been, along with Captain B. H. Shackleford
, a Secession candidate for the State Convention which cut the ties which bound the Commonwealth
to the Federal
His genius, gallantry, and recognized devotion to the Southern
cause pointed him out for the vacant post.
marched his command to the Fauquier Springs
, where it was mustered into the Confederate
service, and from that point conducted it to Manassas
, where, together with a few other companies, it formed the nucleus of the Army of Northern Virginia, with which, through all vicissitudes, it remained until the final day of dissolution at Appomattox Court-House.
At the time when a raid was made by Captain Tompkins
, of the Federal
army, on Fairfax Court-House, where the lamented Captain John Quincey Marr
was killed, the Black Horse
, at the request of their captain, were ordered to that point, from which they performed much arduous scouting duty, and became well known to the enemy.
Upon the advance of General McDowell
, the Black Horse
rejoined the army at Manassas
On the 4th of July, in an attempt to ambuscade a detachment of the enemy, two members were killed and several wounded by the mistaken fire of a South Carolina regiment of infantry.
In the memorable battle of the 21st of July, in which so absolute a victory was won by the Confederate
arms, the Black
Horse Cavalry distinguished itself in the pursuit of the flying enemy, and the next day were thanked by President Davis
in a speech.
Soon after the battle of Manassas
, the Black
Horse Cavalry was selected by General Joseph E. Johnston
, commanding the army, to be his body-guard.
In this capacity it received Prince Napoleon and his suite, consisting of Count Sartiges
and others, upon their visit to the Confederate army, escorted them to the general's headquarters, and was, the next day, the escort at a review of the army at Centreville
In the fall of 1861 the command was incorporated in the Fourth Virginia Cavalry, when Captain William H. Payne
was promoted to be major of the regiment, and Lieutenant Robert Randolph
succeeded to the captaincy, but was soon after detached to form the body-guard of General Earl Van Dorn
, commanding a division at Manassas
When General Earl Van Dorn
was assigned to an independent command in the further South
, he made an unsuccessful application to be allowed to carry the Black Horse
with him. In the spring of 1862 the command accompanied General Johnston
, and on the march was employed as scouts in the rear, and as guides
to the brigade and division commanders, on account of their familiarity with the roads, water-courses, and points suitable for camping.
When the army reached Culpepper county it was reported that the enemy, under General Sumner
, had advanced as far as Warrenton Junction. General Stuart
ordered a detail of ten of the Black Horse
to change overcoats with the Governor
's Guard, theirs being of a dark hue, and recrossing the Rappahannock
to report the movements of the enemy.
This detail did not rejoin the command until the march from Richmond
to the Peninsula
The Fourth Virginia Cavalry was kept behind the earthworks, extending from Yorktown
to James river
, until General Johnston
began to withdraw his forces.
The regiment was then sent to Yorktown
, and brought up the Confederate
rear from that point of our lines.
As soon as McClellan
discovered that the rifle-pits in his front had been vacated, he pressed forward and overtook the Fourth Regiment about a mile and a half before it reached Fort Magruder.
On this ground, the next day, the principal part of the battle of Williamsburg
was fought-one of the best contested of the war, the number of troops on the Confederate
side being taken into account.
The Fourth halted and then slowly fell back, passing Fort Magruder.
The Federals followed, and when they reached the edge of the woods, ran out Gibson
's Battery — to engage a Confederate battery in the fort.
At the same time a company of the Richmond Howitzers
, stationed on elevated ground on the opposite side of the road, also engaged the Federal
battery, and a brisk cannonade was exchanged.
, who occupied a favorable position for observation, discovered that Gibson
's Battery was worsted in the encounter and ordered the Fourth Virginia to charge.
The regiment was already stripped for the fight, and passing Fort Magruder in a rapid charge, captured the Federal
Leaving a few men to take care of the capture, the regiment proceeded by that road into a dense wood, the land on either side of it being too miry for the operations of cavalry.
At about two hundred yards after entering the woods, where the road made a sudden turn, the regiment ran upon a large body of opposing cavalry, when Colonel Wickham
ordered it to fall back to the edge of the woods.
In the execution of this movement Colonel Wickham
was pierced by a sabre, and a color-bearer had his flag wrenched from his hands.
, being disabled from his wound, relinquished the command of the regiment to Major Payne
Toward nightfall the command was moved back to Williamsburg
, and camped for the night.
The next day the Fourth Virginia occupied in the line of
battle the vacant space between Fort Magruder and the redoubt to its right.
The Federal skirmishers advanced against this part of the line, and took position in some timber which had been cut down the past winter.
They opened a destructive fire upon the regiment by which several were killed and wounded-among them Major Payne
, very severely.
He was conveyed to a hospital in Williamsburg
, and fell into the enemy's hands when the Southern
Finding that the cavalry could not cope upon terms of advantage with sharpshooters thus posted, the regiment was relieved by infantry and moved further to the right of the line of battle.
After the battle of Williamsburg
the Confederate army continued its retreat on Richmond
, the cavalry protecting the rear.
The Black Horse participated in the dangers and hardships of this service, in performing which they were compelled to subsist on parched corn.
Near Hanover Court-House, while on picket duty, the Black Horse
assisted in checking the pursuit of General Branch
's North Carolina
troops by Fitz John Porter
, who had overpowered and badly worsted them, and in this effort lost many men wounded and prisoners.
The command took part in Stuart
's raid around McClellan
's army as it lay before Richmond
, which was esteemed at the time a brilliant and hazardous feat, and participated in the fight at the old church in Hanover
, where the gallant Captain Latane
The regiment to which the Black Horse
was attached was now, for a time, camped near Hanover Court-House, and while here an interesting incident took place.
An English officer, who warmly sympathized with the Southern
cause, presented, at Nassau
, to a captain in the Confederate navy a rifle of beautiful workmanship, which he desired him, on his return to Richmond
, “to present to the bravest man in the Confederate army.”
The naval officer, embarrassed by the scope of his commission, and not knowing, to be sure, where he should find the bravest soldier in the Southern
army, thought he could best fulfil his commission by giving the rifle to Captain Robert Randolph
, to be by him presented to the bravest man in the Black
But Captain Randolph
was as much embarrassed in the execution of this commission as the naval captain had been, for how was it possible for any one to say in that command who was the bravest man2 Robert Martin
was the first sergeant, and in that capacity had displayed the highest qualities of a soldier, and had, in consequence, won the esteem and respect of both men and officers.
, too, was foremost in every fight.
He appeared to court danger for itself, and it seemed there was nothing he so little valued as life.
To him, by general consent, therefore, the rifle was awarded as “the bravest of the brave.”
About this time General Lee
, having heard that Burnside
had been moved by sea from North Carolina
, and was at Fredericksburg
, sent a brigade of cavalry, which embraced the Black Horse
, to make a reconnoissance in that direction.
The command saw active service and gained valuable information for the General
, and on its return to Hanover Court-House, the battle of Cedar Mountain
having been fought, it was ordered to join in the pursuit of Pope
The Fourth Regiment crossed the Rappahannock
at Wallis' ford, and, marching through farms, regardless of roads, came into the main road from Culpepper Court-House to Fredericksburg
, and turning to the right, attacked the cavalry protecting Pope
's extreme left and drove it across the Rappahannock
at Ellis' mill
Turning toward Brandy Station
, on the Orange and Alexandria Railroad, the command found that General Lee
, with Longstreet
's Corps, had established his headquarters at Willis Madden's house.
Continuing its march, it crossed the railroad and rejoined Stuart
, who, with Jackson
's Corps, pursued the enemy to the crossings of the Rappahannock
at the railroad bridge and Beverly's ford.
Thus were the two armies again confronting each other, but on opposite sides of the river.
In this situation General Lee
, with the ultimate purpose of forcing an action, marched his army by the left flank, and crossing the Hazel river
into what is known as the Little Fork
, grouped his whole army on the Upper Rappahannock
, opposite the Fauquier Springs
's Cavalry, during this movement, had been detached from the army, and crossing the Rappahannock
, the first drill-ground of the Black Horse
, passed through Warrenton
, and attacked, in the rear of Pope
's army, Catlett's Station at midnight, thus striking his line of communication with his base of supply.
This brilliant exploit resulted in the capture of Pope
's headquarter wagons, the destruction of large army stores, and the capture of many prisoners.
Upon the return of the cavalry to the army, across the Rappahannock
, the Black Horse
was assigned to duty at the headquarters of Jackson
, who was about to make his celebrated flank and rear movements on Pope
's army, which culminated in the second battle of Manassas
It had been the purpose of the Confederate
commander, when he took position on the Upper Rappahannock
, to cross his army at the Fauquier Springs
, and occupying Lee
's ridge and the adjacent highlands, to compel Pope
to deliver battle at some point between Warrenton
With this object in view he had crossed
's Brigade, of Ewell
's Division, on what is known as the Sandy Ford dam
, a point two miles below the Springs
, to protect the men engaged in repairing the bridge at the Springs
, over which the army was to pass.
But this able plan was defeated by heavy rains, which fell the night before, and swelled the river to such an extent as to interrupt work on the bridge.
This enforced delay enabled the Federal
general to anticipate his opponent in the occupation of Lee
's ridge, and secured to him the advantage of position which Lee
had been maneuvring to obtain.
Prompted by his military genius, Lee
determined to cross the Rappahannock
higher up, at Hinson's ford, and marching through Upper Fauquier to gain Pope
's rear and compel him to engage battle on other ground than that on which the Federal
army was so strongly posted.
In pursuance of this plan, Jackson
began his movement through the country above designated, until he struck Pope
's line of communication at Bristow Station and Manassas Junction
, as Stuart
had before struck it at Catlett's Station.
But the blow delivered by Jackson
was a far more serious one; for, in order to regain his lost ground, the Federal
commander was compelled to fight the second battle of Manassas
struck the railroad at Bristow Station, where the sound of his cannon first apprised Pope
of his whereabouts, he left General Ewell
to guard the crossings of Broad run
He then moved down the railroad to Manassas
, where he captured, in addition to several trains of cars, a large amount of army supplies, all of which were destroyed, except such as could be applied to immediate use. When this capture was first reported to the enemy, it was supposed to have been made by one of Stuart
's raiding parties, and in consequence a New Jersey brigade of infantry, stationed below Manassas
, was ordered up to retake the place.
Possessed with this belief, the command marched to within a short distance of the fortifications, when it was found that it had to cope with Jackson
's infantry, instead of Stuart
The guns from the fortification opened upon the advancing Federals in front, while on their left flank they were assailed by Braxton
In this trying situation the brigade behaved in a soldierly manner, and marched from the field with ranks unbroken and colors flying.
But when they reached the woods they broke when they were charged by a detachment of twenty of the Black Horse
, commanded by Jackson
in person, and many prisoners were taken.
Noiselessly and swiftly Jackson
traversed the country between Hinson's ford and Bristow Station.
With such caution was his march conducted, under the shelter of forest lands, by day, no campfires
being allowed by night to indicate the presence of an army, that the enemy were kept in complete ignorance of the important movement.
The perilous expedition, and the responsibility which attached to it, did not depress the General
, but acted rather like an elixir upon him. His spirits rose high, and he relaxed much from his silent and austere mood.
On the march he conversed freely with Lieutenant A. D. Payne
, whose roused spirit kindled with his own at the approaching conflict, when a second time a great battle was to be fought on the border land of the hostile republics.
The General used few words, but probed his subject to the bottom.
His conversation was chiefly about the war, and he expressed himself freely about the merits of the officers of the Federal
army, but with more reserve as to the Confederate
They were passing through the country of General Turner Ashby
's nativity, and were at one time near the place of his birth and the scenes of his early life.
, but a little before, and while attached to Jackson
's army, had been killed, about the close of the magnificent campaign in the Valley
The career of the deceased officer had been brief, but as glorious as the morning star before it brightens into the perfect day. In a single sentence, Jackson
photographed this peerless soldier, who has-been so justly compared, for generosity and courage, to the immortal Black Prince
He said: “Ashby
was born a soldier, and I feel his loss now. He was a man of intuitive military perception; his judgment was never surpassed.”
At The Plains
, a village on the Manassas Railroad, about four miles east of Salem
, Lieutenant A. D. Payne
, with thirty men, was sent back to guide and accompany General Lee
, who was with Longstreet
's Corps, while Captain Randolph
, with the rest of the Black Horse
command, remained with Jackson
The lieutenant retraced his steps, and reported to General Lee
as he was crossing the Rappahannock
at Hinson's mill.
The troops were hurried on in the direction of Salem
, the track over which Jackson
had just passed, and encamped for the night between that point and Orlean
made his headquarters at Prospect Hill
, the seat of the late Dr. Jaquelin A. Marshall
, and was then the residence of his family.
With his staff, the General
found quarters in the house, but Lieutenant Payne
and his men camped in the yard.
By some unaccountable neglect, the main highway, leading past Prospect Hill
, and from thence to Warrenton
, had not been picketed nor guarded, so that there was that night between the Confederate
general and the Federal
army, which lay scattered between Waterloo
and Warrenton Junction, nothing but this open
In this exposed condition things remained for several hours, when it was discovered by Colonel Charles Marshall
, the vigilant aide-de-camp of General Lee
About midnight, with consternation, he aroused Lieutenant Payne
, and communicated the fact to him, and that the nearest brigade was a mile distant.
With his whole force, all the roads in the direction of the enemy were picketed; but, fortunately, the enemy were not apprised of the General
's exposed position, and the night passed without alarm.
The next day, just before the head of the column arrived at Salem
, information was brought to General Lee
that a body of the enemy's cavalry were approaching that place.
, with his small detachment, was thrown forward to reconnoitre, for the rest of Stuart
's cavalry were with Jackson
He dashed into the village, but was soon driven out by overwhelming numbers, and he endeavored, but without success, to entice them into an ambuscade prepared for them by General Longstreet
During the skirmishing which took place with the Federal
cavalry, several prisoners were captured, from whom information was gained that Lieutenant Payne
had struck Buford
's Brigade of Federal cavalry, who, having captured some of Jackson
's stragglers, had heard from them, for the first time, of his. movement.
The next day General Lee
reached Thoroughfare gap, but did not succeed in forcing a passage through it till late in the evening.
During the entire day he was uneasy for Jackson
's safety, and, in the evening, requested Lieutenant Payne
to send him a soldier who was acquainted with the passes of Bull Run mountains
The man was stripped of all the indicia of a soldier, and, dressed in the garb of a countryman, was mounted on a lame horse and a wagon saddle.
Thus equipped, he was started with a dispatch for Jackson
, concealed on his person, and was directed, at every hazard, and with all celerity, to deliver it.
directed Lieutenant Payne
to make a reconnoissance to the rear of the force opposing him at Thoroughfare gap, and report without delay.
Taking with him a party of five or six trusty men, the gallant officer made a detour to the right, and succeeded in reaching the turnpike, which connects Warrenton
, near New Baltimore, about nine o'clock at night.
From that point, he proceeded down the turnpike, and, mixing with the enemy, discovered that they were retiring rapidly toward Gainesville
This highly important information he quickly communicated to the Confederate
general, at the residence of Colonel Robert Beverly
The next day, about noon, in advance of Longstreet
's march, this detachment of the Black Horse
's Corps, near Groveton
, a place on the Warrenton turnpike
, below New Baltimore.
As soon as the two corps of the Confederate army were again united, Lieutenant Payne
, with his detachment, was ordered to report to his command.
The Black Horse, thus consolidated, took part in the great battle of the 30th, the Second Manassas
, in which General Pope
was as disastrously defeated as McDowell
had been on the same ground.
In this engagement, many members of the Black Horse
were fatally wounded, among them Erasmus Helm, Jr.
, than whom there was no braver soldier nor more charming gentleman.
The second battle of Manassas
continued through three days, and was unsurpassed for severity by any fought during this bloody war. The effect of the heavy rain, which had prevented Lee
from crossing his army at the Fauquier Springs
, was now experienced in all its force; for Pope
, in this prolonged struggle, was heavily reinforced from McClellan
's army transported from Harrison's Landing
, which could not have been done had the battle taken place in the vicinity of the Rappahannock
according, as we have seen, to Lee
's first design.
The Federal army, having been routed from every position it had occupied in the battle, retreated into the strongly intrenched camp at Centreville
, whose fortifications had been constructed by the combined skill of Johnston
during the first winter of the war, and now a second time offered its shelter to a broken, defeated and demoralized Federal army.
On Sunday morning, while the victorious army was recruiting its wearied virtue and binding up its wounds, Lee
, sitting on a fallen tree, were engaged in close consultation.
Their horses were grazing at a short distance, when an alarm was given that the Federal
cavalry were approaching.
The two generals sprang for their horses, but failed to secure them, and in doing so Lee
fell forward and so injured his hands as to be compelled to ride in an ambulance through the ensuing Maryland campaign
with his hands bandaged and in a sling.
At this critical moment two privates of the Black Horse
tendered their horses and the officers were again mounted.
But it proved to be a false alarm.
At noon the Confederates
began to march to Pope
's rear, at Centreville
, passing Sudley church and Cub run
bridge, the object being again to interrupt Pope
's communications, and compel a renewal of the conflict.
When the Federal
general discovered this movement he moved out of the ramparts at Centreville
, and with disorganized masses recommenced his retreat toward the Potomac
From the crest of a high hill Jackson
saw the retreating columns, and, at the same time, observed a detachment of the
Federal army as it was taking position behind the Independent and unfinished Manassas Railroad.
This was evidently a force thrown out to protect the Federal
immediately attacked it, but with an inadequate force, and the fight at Chantilly
took place, which lasted until night.
It is left to the future historian to inquire why the entire strength of the Confederate army was not employed against the retreating columns of the enemy.
Perhaps it was because Fate had declared against the establishment of the Southern Republic
, and it was by such means that her conclusions were to be wrought out.
Flushed by this victory, it was determined to cross the Potomac
and carry the war into the enemy's country.
If this military policy had been adopted as promptly after the first victory at Manassas
, it is clear that the Confederate States
would have been triumphant in the war. The sound policy of secession would then have been vindicated, and have marked the beginning of a great nation instead of being hawked at as a “perfidious bark built in the eclipse” that has wrecked the fortunes of a people.
The army marched for Edwards
Along the route there was manifested by the people the greatest curiosity and desire to see their great General-“Stonewall Jackson
,” as he had been baptized on the battle-field.
Groups would be collected on the road, composed of all ages and both sexes, black
would be pointed out to them they would send up a great shout, and the General
, lifting his cap, would gallop away from the applause.
In this connection an amusing incident occurred which created no little merriment, and exemplifies the liberties his soldiers would sometimes take with “Old Stonewall,” as they called their darling.
The Black Horse sent forward one of their members to ride as near to Jackson
as military etiquette would allow.
He was, by all odds, the ugliest fellow in the command; indeed, the Black Horse
used to brag that he was the ugliest fellow in either army.
When the next admiring crowd was passed, and they demanded to see the great captain, this soldier was pointed out to them.
When they shouted and cheered he halted, and, with the utmost complaisance, received their compliments.
, of course, had galloped on as usual.
When the General
, turning in his saddle, saw what was going on, he was greatly amused, and the joke was repeated until the novelty wore off.
The Black Horse accompanied Jackson
in his expedition to Williamsport
, and Harper's Ferry
At the latter place he employed the pen of Lieutenant A. D. Payne
to copy his order
of assault to be delivered to his officers-orders which were never acted on, as the place was surrendered before the assaulting columns began their work.
The General remained at Harper's Ferry
till a late hour of the night, disposing of the prisoners and the material of war which he had captured.
He then started, escorted by Lieutenant Payne
, with a detachment of twenty of his command, to reach Lee
's headquarters at Sharpsburg
, leaving his army to follow.
At daybreak, a little out of the town, the party halted, and built a fire in a skirt of woods.
slept while a party was sent to discover the position of Lee
As soon as this fact was reported to him he joined the general commanding.
The next day the battle of Sharpsburg
was fought, during which the Black Horse
acted as aides and couriers.
's report of this campaign he extols the conduct of this command, naming and complimenting its officers.
When the Confederate army recrossed the Potomac
, General Stuart
made strenuous efforts to have the Black Horse
restored to the cavalry division.
He wanted them to accompany his raid around McClellan
's army at Harper's Ferry
, where it lay gathering strength for another invasion of Virginia
would not agree to Stuart
He said: “I know the, Black Horse, and can employ the greater part of the command for staff duty.”
In this raid Stuart
took with him fifteen squadrons of horse, composed of details from his regiments, one of which the writer of this commanded.
The raiders crossed an obscure ford of the Potomac
, above Harper's Ferry
, General Wade Hampton
, with a battery of horse artillery, being in the van, and camped that night at Chambersburg
The next day they passed through Emmettsburg on their return to the Potomac
, and, marching all night, early the ensuing day reached White's ford
of the Potomac
, below Harper's Ferry
, having thus made the circuit of the Federal
But here Stuart
encountered a formidable force of infantry and cavalry, stationed to oppose his passage of the river.
Without hesitation, and with that undaunted courage which he showed on every battle-field, he drove the enemy before him, rapidly threw his command over the river, without so much as losing a horse-shoe
, and marched off for the army headquarters as the artillery of the enemy was taking position on the heights he had just evacuated.
As he passed their camps the infantry cheered him, a compliment they were always slow to pay the cavalry.
crossed the river at Harper's Ferry
was encamped at Winchester
then restored the Black Horse
to its place in the cavalry division, for Stuart
was ordered to throw
himself in front of the advancing columns of McClellan
, and delay his march until Lee
could again interpose between the Federal
army and Richmond
In obedience to this order, Stuart
crossed the Blue Ridge
into Loudon county
, and heavily skirmished with the Federal
advance through that county and Upper Fauquier.
At Union, near the dividing line of the counties, he held his position so well that it was not until the evening of the second day that he was compelled to relinquish it. At Upperville
, and Barbee
's cross-roads, Stuart
made stands until compelled to retreat by the pressure of numbers.
In the meantime, Lee
crossed the Blue Ridge
, at Chester gap
, and took position on the south bank of the Rappahannock
He was there informed that McClellan
had been relieved, and Burnside
promoted to the command of the Federal
army, and that he had indicated his intention of marching toward Fredericksburg
again put his army in motion, and posted it on the Spottsylvania Heights
, at Fredericksburg
, and confronted Burnside
on the opposite side of the river.
The Union army again suffered defeat, and again changed its general.
In the winter of 1863, while General Hooker
was on the north bank of the Rappahannock
, the Black Horse
was detached from the Fourth Virginia Cavalry, and ordered to Lower Fauquier
and Stafford county
to report the enemy's movements to General Lee
During this time the command performed many brilliant exploits in its numerous encounters with the enemy, captured three hundred prisoners, and minutely reported Hooker
Its services were handsomely acknowledged by General Lee
and General Stuart
in general orders.
An incident that occurred at this time illustrates the nature of this service.
General Fitz Lee
, with a brigade of cavalry, had crossed the Rappahannock
, at Kelly's ford
, and moving down the north bank of the river, had driven the enemy's pickets to within three miles of Falmouth
At Hartwood church he captured a number of prisoners, and detailing a guard of men, whose horses were in a weak and crippled condition, ordered Lieutenant A. D. Payne
to take command and conduct them to the army, crossing at the United States
But he informed him that he would, in all probability, fall in with a company of Confederate cavalry which had been on picket.
After proceeding about two miles, Lieutenant Payne
came suddenly on a body of cavalry drawn up in the road, and discovered, after calling to know to which flag they belonged, that they were a squadron of the enemy.
He immediately turned about, and, ordering the guard to shoot any prisoner who should
attempt to escape, endeavored to return to Fitz Lee
. Finding himself rapidly pursued, he turned off the main road, but soon encountered, drawn up in line, another force of Federal cavalry.
He passed very near to them, and, much to his relief, succeeded in reaching his brigade.
There he informed Major Morgan
, of the First Virginia Cavalry, of the perils he had escaped, and, directed him to the place where he would find the squadron he had last seen.
at once, with an adequate force, repaired to the spot, finding the enemy occupying the same position, who at once surrendered.
returned with his prisoners, Lieutenant Payne
inquired of their commander why he did not attempt to rescue the prisoners.
The officer replied, “I was only waiting to surrender, for we were all too much excited to see that the greater part of your force were prisoners.”
replied: “I was not quite that far gone; but if you had made an attack I should have been compelled to withdraw the guard and let the prisoners go.”
When Fitz Lee
returned to his position on the left flank of the army, Captain Randolph
, again in command of the Black Horse
, gave permission to ten or a dozen of the men to follow the march of the enemy toward Fredericksburg
and pick up stragglers and horses.
This they did for some distance, but finding neither men nor horses, the party returned.
Two of them, however, “Old blaze” and Joe Boteler
, concluded to follow the hunt yet longer.
A narrative of their adventures may prove interesting, and will at least show how such work may be done.
Near the Stafford
line they stopped at Mrs.
H.‘s and applied to have their canteens filled with brandy.
This the old lady positively refused to do, saying: “You are in danger enough, without adding to it by drink.”
But she relented when they promised to bring her back “six Yankees.”
And this is how they complied with their engagement.
Between Spotted tavern and Hartwood church, the scouts charged with a yell a small party of the enemy and succeeded each in capturing a mounted cavalryman.
These prisoners were disarmed and dismounted, and ordered to remain on the roadside until the captors should return.
To induce them to do so, they were told that there was a force in the woods who would capture them if they attempted to escape.
Depositing the arms and horses with a citizen, the scouts continued their ride in the same direction.
Soon they came in sight of the rear guard of a cavalry force, and, taking advantage of a body of wood to conceal their numbers, charged with a shout.
This hurried the retreat, and two of them, who had straggled, were taken prisoners.
further on they met a soldier in blue, who proved to be an Irishman, and not suspecting an enemy, was easily added to their list of captures.
Retracing their steps, they called for the horses and arms they had left, and, to their surprise, found their first capture waiting for them by the wayside.
Remounting them on their own steeds, they met a little boy, who informed them that there were “three Yankee cavalrymen” at his uncle's, who lived a mile from the road.
The horses were a temptation which the scouts could not resist, but the difficulty was how to dispose of their five prisoners while they went to secure them.
Knowing two ladies zealous for the cause, they prevailed upon them to furnish a supper for the captured soldiers, but to delay in its preparation until their return.
As fortune would have it, there were at the house two citizens who were charged with having taken the oath.
The captured horses and arms having been secreted, with the exception of two carbines, these were loaded and given to the suspected citizens, and they were ordered to stand guard at the door.
They were frankly told of the suspicion that attached to them, and that if they allowed the prisoners to escape they would be sent to Castle Thunder.
The scouts followed their boy guide to his uncle's gate.
One of them entered by the front door while his companion went around to the rear.
As he entered the sitting-room on the first floor he found three Union soldiers.
They sprang for their arms, which they had left in the hall, but the other scout coming to his companion's assistance, they were forced to surrender.
One of them proved to be a courier of Colonel Kellogg
, of the Eighteenth Pennsylvania, and had on his person valuable dispatches.
The next step was to secure the horses, which having done, the Confederates
returned with their additional prisoners and relieved the citizen guard.
Supper over, the party started for the Confederate
camp, but stopped at a house on the road, where the prisoners were allowed to sleep until daylight.
. H.‘s, where they had been supplied with their brandy, they exhibited their eight prisoners, two more than they had promised to bring.
As they entered camp with their captures, they were warmly congratulated by their comrades, and sent forward by Captain Randolph
to General Stuart
When told of the adventures of the scouts, the General
expressed great satisfaction, but remarked it was the first time in his experience he had ever known whisky or brandy entitled to be put on the credit side of the sheet.
In the ensuing campaign of 1863, the Black Horse
constituted a part of Stuart
's cavalry division, and participated in the battle of
, the severe fight at Brandy Station
, and in all the movements conducted by Stuart
to mask the movements of Lee
's army in the Valley of Virginia
as it was being marched for the invasion of Maryland
, in the county of Loudon
, the Black Horse
, under command of Lieutenant A. D. Payne
, covered itself with glory.
The Southern cavalry had been pressing the pursuit from the direction of the Blue Ridge
, during the day, and had brought the enemy to a stand at a point on the Middleburg
road two miles from Aldie
, and at an equal distance from that place on the Snickersville
road, these two roads converging at Aldie
was in advance with the Fourth Regiment, the Black Horse
being the leading squadron.
He halted his command, and taking with him two pieces of artillery, he ordered Lieutenant A. D. Payne
to follow with his command.
He posted the artillery on a prominent point in the angle formed by the two roads, and commenced firing on the enemy who were advancing in large numbers on the Snickersville turnpike
To capture the guns placed in this exposed position the Federals
sent forward a regiment of Massachusetts
In this critical position of his guns, Colonel Munford
ordered Lieutenant Payne
, who had not with him more than thirty of his men, the rest being scattered as videttes, to charge the advancing column of cavalry, but never expecting, as he afterward said, to see one of them return alive.
formed his men in the turnpike in a column of fours, and down upon the enemy he rode with a loud cheer, the dust concealing the insignificant nature of his force.
The regiment, thus deceived by the boldness and impetuosity of the attack, fired at random and was thrown into confusion.
A number of prisoners were captured before they discovered their error, and returned to the attack.
But the object of the cavalry charge had been attained and the guns were withdrawn in safety, and the timely arrival of the rest of the brigade saved the detachment from destruction.
's intention to cross the Potomac
' ferry, he left two brigades of cavalry posted between Lee
and the Federal
army to continue to perform outpost duty, while with the rest of his division he moved to the rear of the enemy's cavalry, and placed himself between the Federal
army and Washington
This he effected, crossing the Bull Run mountain
, and, after raiding through Prince William and Fairfax
counties, recrossed the railroad at Burk's Station, where he found a large store of forage of great value to his tired animals.
From this point he marched to the Potomac
, at Senecca falls, where, as the fording was deep, the
caissons were emptied and the bombshells carried over by cavalrymen in their hands.
After capturing a canalboat laden with commissary stores, Stuart
proceeded to Rockville
, in the direction of Washington City
Here a large Union flag was flying, which he would not allow his men to pull down, saying he was not fighting the flag, but his real motive was that he wanted it as a decoy.
several regiments were sent in the direction of Washington
, who captured the long wagon-train so often spoken of in connection with this campaign.
It was drawn by more than an hundred mules, and seemed a rich prize; but it proved in the end a serious disadvantage, for it retarded the movements of the command, beside requiring a large detail of men. This raid produced great consternation among the enemy, and drew from Meade
's army all his available cavalry to oppose it. But for this encumbrance Stuart
could to better advantage have engaged the enemy, and destroyed, or, at least, interrupted the communications with Washington
, eighteen miles west of Baltimore
, the Fourth Virginia Regiment charged a regiment of Federal cavalry, driving a portion of it toward Baltimore
, and the rest toward Frederick
From this point Stuart
proceeded to Hanover
, in Pennsylvania
, where he engaged a large cavalry force under General Kilpatrick
In this fight the Second North Carolina Regiment was commanded by Lieutenant Colonel William H. Payne
, formerly captain of the Black Horse
He bore himself with conspicuous gallantry, and was taken prisoner in a charge which he led, the regiment sustaining considerable loss in killed and wounded.
The effort of Kilpatrick
to detain Stuart
was foiled by this fight, and he moved on to Carlisle barracks, which, with his artillery, he set on fire.
cavalry marched to Gettysburg
, and took position on Lee
's left, near Huntersville
They took part in the battle on the memorable 3d of July, 1863, in which the Southern Confederacy received its death wound.
's advance into Virginia
retired to the south bank of the Rapidan
, with headquarters at Orange Court-House
, where he remained until October 11th.
He then determined to assume the offensive.
With this intent he ordered General Fitz Lee
, with whom the Black Horse
was serving, to cross the Rapidan
and Morton's fords, where he found himself face to face with Buford
's cavalry division.
In the fight which ensued, the Black Horse
lost some of its bravest men, and the Fourth Virginia two of its most gallant officers.
This spirited attack, combined with an attack by General Lomax
's Brigade, compelled Buford
's retreat to the direction of Stevensburg
, closely pursued by Lomax
command of the Black Horse
, with some other men from the regiment, arrived at Stevensburg
as the Third Virginia Cavalry had been repulsed.
Being in line of battle he charged the Federals
with great spirit, and drove them back on their dismounted line.
then ordered his men to fall back a few hundred yards in an open field, and there rallied them around their colors, under a heavy fire of the enemy.
By this gallant conduct a large number of the Third Virginia, with their lieutenant colonel, were rescued.
For this service General Fitz Lee
complimented Captain Randolph
in high terms, and said it was the most beautiful sight he had ever witnessed.
This commendation was greatly valued by the command, but it had been dearly bought by the loss of many of its bravest members.
General Fitz Lee
continued the pursuit of Meade
as far as Bull run
, who, occasionally, turned upon his pursuers, and punished their audacity, as at Bristow Station. General R. E. Lee
fell back to the Rappahannock
, General Fitz Lee
on the railroad, and Stuart
, with Hampton
's Division, on the turnpike, bringing up the rear.
As soon as Fitz Lee
crossed the river he sent two of the Black Horse
back to watch the enemy's advance, and report his progress in rebuilding the railroad, but with permission to take any other men with them they might select.
They crossed the river and recruited Sergeant Joseph Reid
, of the Black Horse
, a man remarkable even in that army and in that command for sagacity, calmness in the moment of danger, and a lion-like courage.
Having collected much valuable information the party reported to General Fitz Lee
, who ordered Sergeant Reid
to take command of his scouts operating in Lower Fauquier
, Prince William, and Stafford
So well did he perform this hazardous service, that he has left with the people of those localities many a thrilling tale of his daring and hair-breadth escapes.
In consequence of information sent by Sergeant Reid
, that the Federal
army was moving toward the Rappahannock
, furnished with eight days cooked rations, and sixty rounds of ammunition, General Lee
withdrew to the south side of the Rapidan
During this movement Meade
advanced to Mine run
, in Spottsylvania
, where an undecided affair took place between the two armies, the Fourth Virginia Cavalry holding Roberson's ford on the Rapidan
and repelling the efforts of the enemy's cavalry to effect a passage of the river at that point.
From this point the Black Horse
, with the exception of Sergeant Reid
's party, were sent to Upper Fauquier and Loudon counties
to observe and report the enemy's movements, on which duty they remained during the winter, at the close of which they were ordered to report to the regiment at Orange Court-
In the spring of 1864, before Grant
, who now commanded the Union
army, began his forward movement, General Sedgwick
made a reconnoissance in force in the direction of Madison Court-House, and was met by A. P. Hill
In the collision which ensued Second Lieutenant Marshall James
, one of the most gallant officers of the Black Horse
, with a small detachment, greatly distinguished himself.
In the latter part of April the cavalry corps marched to Fredericksburg
and took position on the right of the Army of Northern Virginia.
In May they broke camp to meet Grant
's advance from Culpepper
into the Wilderness
by way of Germanna ford.
On the 4th and 5th of May were fought the battles of the Wilderness
, after which Grant
commenced upon Richmond
his celebrated movement by his left flank.
The Black Horse engaged in the desperate fighting which lasted for several days, in which the cavalry was employed to stem the torrent of Grant
's advance until the infantry could be marched around to his front.
During these engagements the Black Horse
lost heavily in killed, wounded, and prisoners.
Among the latter was a young Englishman by the name of Alston
, who had crossed the sea to join this command.
He was as gallant, in army phrase, as they make them, and true to the cause for which, he had staked his life.
While in prison his friends in England
sought to procure his release, and the Federal
authorities were willing to set him at liberty upon condition of his returning home and taking no further part in the war. But Alston
would not consent to be separated from his comrades.
He was, in due course of time, exchanged, but died in Richmond
before he could rejoin his command.
On Sunday, May 8th, the Southern
cavalry were driven back to a position near Spottsylvania Court-House, where they formed a thin screen, behind which the infantry was concealed.
The enemy advanced in full confidence of encountering only the force they had been driving, from cover to cover, since earliest dawn, but they were met by a murderous fire from a long line of battle, which sent some cf them to the rear, but stretched most of them on the field.
The day after the battle of Spottsylvania Court-House
, Captain A. D. Payne
ordered two of his chosen scouts to report for duty to the general commanding.
They were directed to approach as near Chancellorsville
as possible and report whether the troops that had been stationed at that point had been moved toward Spottsylvania Court-House, and to discover, if possible, at what point Grant
was concentrating his army.
The scouts, being entirely unacquainted
with the country, were sent to General Early
, in the hope of obtaining a guide.
But while Early
could not furnish them a guide, he concerted with them signals, which, being communicated to the pickets, would enable them to re-enter his camp at any hour of the night, and himself conducted them through the lines of General Joe Davis
Protected by the darkness, they soon found themselves in the midst of Grant
's moving army, and made the discovery that the troops from Chancellorsville
had been moved up to Spottsylvania Court-House, and that the centre of Grant
's camp was south thirty degrees east from a particular house which had been marked on General Lee
's diagram of the country, and furthermore that the Federals
were throwing up earthworks.
As soon as this information was communicated to General Lee
, he turned to his map, and, drawing the line as the scout had reported, appeared greatly pleased.
He said to the officers around him: “I am in the right position.”
On the evening of the 9th, the cavalry followed Sheridan
in his raid on Richmond
, and had desperate fighting with his rear guard.
On the 10th, the Black Horse
, under command of Captain A. D. Payne
, charged a party of the enemy and captured a number of prisoners.
On the 11th, the Confederate cavalry, still in pursuit of Sheridan
, renewed the fight at the Yellow tavern
, near Richmond
, in which General Stuart
was mortally wounded.
On the 12th, they engaged the head of Sheridan
's column, at Meadow bridge
, on the Chickahominy
, but, overwhelmed by the weight of superior numbers, were compelled to withdraw.
In the execution of this order, Lieutenant Colonel Randolph
, a former captain of the Black Horse
, was instantly killed.
A braver and more beloved officer never perished on the field.
's arrival near Richmond
, a desperate engagement occurred near Harris
' shop, in which the Southern
cavalry behaved with great gallantry, fighting for many hours as infantry, and for the greater part of the day resisted and obstructed the advance of Grant
's whole army, until Lee
to get his troops up from his line of battle and deliver the heavy blow which the next day he inflicted on the Federal
army at the Second Cold harbor.
In this sanguinary engagement the Black Horse
lost more than half the men taken into action.
Soon after, at Trevellyann's Station, General Hampton
fought, perhaps, the bloodiest cavalry fight of the war, in which the Fourth Virginia Regiment behaved with conspicuous gallantry, sustaining again a heavy loss.
was now compelled to retire upon the
main body, harassed by the Confederate cavalry, by whom he had been completely foiled in his attempt upon the communications leading to Richmond
by way of the Virginia Central Railroad and James River canal.
Returning to Lee
's army, the Black Horse
were occupied in arduous picket duty, and engaged in daily skirmishes, taking part, also, in the overthrow of Wilson
's cavalry raiders.
In August, 1864, General Fitz Lee
's cavalry division was sent to reinforce Early
in the Valley
, who had fallen back after his campaign against Washington
In the fight at Waynesborough
the Black Horse
was the leading squadron of the Fourth Regiment, and was especially complimented by General Early
After driving the enemy through the town, the Confederate cavalry halted on a hill in the western suburbs, when an officer in the Union
service, Captain J. A. Bliss
, faced his squadron, and, placing himself at its head, ordered a charge.
But his men followed not their gallant leader.
He, not looking to see, or, as it appeared, caring whether he was accompanied by his command, dashed alone into the midst of the Black Horse
No one fired at him, the men not wishing to kill so brave an officer.
With his sabre he wounded several of the command, and some one knocked him from his horse, and might have killed him but for the interposition of Captain Henry Lee
, a brother of Fitz Lee
, who, observing the dismounted officer to make the Masonic sign, went to his assistance.
During this campaign, and after the affair just mentioned, George W. Martin
, of the Black Horse
, with a member of the First Virginia Regiment, were returning from a scout late in the evening.
It was raining, and the soldiers had their oilcloths thrown over their shoulders, which, in a great measure, concealed their uniform.
On looking back, they saw three mounted men coming up behind them, whom they inferred were Union soldiers, as they were in the rear of Sheridan
Drawing and cocking their pistols, they rode slowly, that they might be overtaken.
The Federals--for such the party were-had had their suspicions aroused, and also prepared for the fight.
As soon as they came alongside of them, the scouts wheeled and demanded a surrender, when they were fired upon by their opponents.
They proved to be Lieutenant Meiggs
, of Sheridan
's staff, and two orderlies.
' shot passed through Martin
's body, but he braced himself, returned the fire, and killed Meiggs
The other two scouts captured one of the orderlies.
The other made his escape, and reported to Sheridan
that his party had been bushwhacked, who, in retaliation, ordered the burning of every house
in a radius of five miles. Joshua Martin
was carried to the house of a farmer, where he was tenderly nursed until sufficiently recovered to return to his home in Fauquier
After the war closed, General Meiggs
, believing that his son had been assassinated, sought to have Martin
arrested and tried by a court-martial for murder; but when the facts, as above stated, were certified to him by Captain A. D. Payne
, the matter was dropped, for Lieutenant Meiggs
had been slain in open and legitimate war. George W. Martin
is now at home, a prosperous agriculturist, and one of the most respected citizens in the community in which he resides.
In the month of December, the Black Horse
was ordered into tardy county, and performed hazardous but thankless service among the “Swamp Dragoons,” as the disloyal element in that county named itself.
They suffered severely from cold, but consumed large quantities of pork and apple brandy
, in which, at that season, that inhospitable region abounds.
Returning from this duty, the command proceeded to Richmond
, where it remained until the beginning of the final act in this stupendous tragedy.
They fought side by side with their brethren of the cavalry at Five Forks
, who never displayed a more indomitable spirit than in these closing scenes of the war. They were in the saddle day and night, marching and fighting without food, and without sleep, in the vain endeavor to protect the Confederate
trains from the swarming hordes of the enemy's cavalry.
At High bridge
, the Black Horse
shared, with their comrades of Fitz Lee
's Division, the last rays of glory that fell on the Army of Northern Virginia, capturing an infantry brigade, and slaying its commander on the field.
, the cavalry repulsed a division of Gregg
's cavalry, which came upon them unawares, and nearly succeeded in capturing General Lee
But, instead, in this collision, General Gregg
was taken prisoner.
On April 9th, General Fitz Lee
was ordered to hold the road from Appomattox Court-House to Lynchburg
, which he did, in spite of repeated efforts by the enemy's cavalry to wrest it from him, until a flag, conveying the intelligence of a truce, compelled him to pause in his advance upon the enemy.
Thus, sword in hand, the Black Horse
, which had formed the nucleus of the Army of Northern Virginia, was found at the post of duty and of danger when that army of tattered uniforms and bright muskets surrendered to overwhelming numbers and resources.
Of this army it might be said: “Vital in every part, it could only by annihilation die.”
The division of General Fitz Lee
did not surrender until some time afterward; but, being cut off from the main body of the
army, the Black Horse
patiently awaited the approach of night, and, under its friendly cover, sought their various homes, which, four years before, they had left to fight for and protect.
But the command was again collected at the Fauquier Springs
, by order of Lieutenant Ficklin
, Captain A. D. Payne
being then a prisoner of war. They had resolved to repair to Johnston
's standard, which was still, as they thought, flying in North Carolina
But the writer of this article repaired to their rendezvous, and informed Lieutenant Ficklin
that General Johnston
, too, had surrendered, and that the cause for which they had all fought had been lost.
The Black Horse Cavalry was then disbanded, on the margin of the same river on which it had been organized, and but two miles lower down the stream.
The Black Horse Cavalry may now be found settled, for the most part, in their native seat, Lower Fauquier
, as diligent in peace as they were courageous and faithful in war. But members of the command may be found scattered among the States, assiduous, in all the fields of enterprise, to catch the golden six miles of fortune.
Of the Black Horse
it may be said, as it was said of Cromwell
's Ironsides, except that they tread the higher walks of life: “That, in every department of honest industry, the discharged warriors prospered beyond other men; that none were charged with theft or robbery; that none were heard to ask an alms; and that if a baker, a mason, or a wagoner attracted notice by his diligence or sobriety, he was, in all probability, one of Oliver
's old soldiers.”