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The chief town of a district in Assyria, named Apolloniatis. Apollonia is incorrectly placed by Stephanus (s. v. Ἀπολλωνία) between Babylon and Susa. Strabo (p. 732, and 524) says that Apolloniatis is that part of Babylonia which borders on Susis, that its original name was Sittacene, and it was then called Apolloniatis. The names Apollonia and Apolloniatis were evidently given by the Macedonian Greeks. Apolloniatis is in fact one of the divisions of Assyria in the geography of the Greeks; but it is impossible to determine its limits. Polybius (5.44) makes Mesopotamia and Apolloniatis the southern boundaries of Media, and Apolloniatis is therefore east of the Tigris. This appears, indeed, from another passage in Polybius (5.51), which also shows that Apollonia was east of the Tigris. The country was fertile, but it also contained a hilly tract, that is, it extended some distance east of the banks of the Tigris. There is evidently great confusion in the divisions of Assyria by the Greek geographers. If we place Apolloniatis south of the district of Arbela, and make it extend as far as Bagdad, there may be no great error. There seems to be no authority for fixing the site of Apollonia.


An island on the coast of Bithynia (Arrian, Peripl. p. 13), 200 stadia from the promontory of Calpe (Kirpe). It was called Thynias, says Pliny (6.12), to distinguish it from another island Apollonia. He places it a Roman mile from the coast. Thynias, Thyne, Thynia, or Thynis (Steph. B. sub voce Θυνιάς), may have been the original name of this island, and Apollonia a name derived from a temple of Apollo, built after the Greeks. The other name is evidently derived from the Thyni of the opposite coast.


A town of Mysia, on an eminence east of Pergamum, on the way to Sardis. (Strab. p. 625; Xen. Anab. 7.8. 15) It seems to have been near the borders of Mysia and Lydia. The site does not appear to be determined.


Steph. B. sub voce (s. v. Ἀπολλωνία) mentions Apollonia in Pisidia, and one also in Phrygia; but it seems very probable, from comparing what he says of the two, that there is some confusion, and there was perhaps only one, and in Pisidia. In Strabo (p. 576) the name is Apollonias. The ruins were discovered by Arundell (Discoveries, &c. vol. i. p. 236) at a place called Olou Borlon. The acropolis stands on a lofty crag, from which there is an extensive view of the rich plains to the NW. This place is in 38° 4′ N. lat., and in the direct line between Apamea and Antioch, so far as the nature of the country will admit. (Hamilton, Researches, &c. vol. ii. p. 361.) The Peutinger Table places it 24 miles from Apameia Cibotus. Several Greek inscriptions from Apollonia have been copied by Arundell and Hamilton., One inscription, which contains the words βουλὴ καὶ δῆμος τῶν Ἀπολλωνιατῶν, decides the question as to the site of this place. Two Greek inscriptions of the Roman period copied by Arundell give the full title, “the Boule and Demus of the Apolloniatae Lycii Thraces Coloni,” from which Arundell concludes that “a Thracian colony established themselves in Lycia, and that some of the latter founded the city of Apollonia;” an interpretation that may be not quite correct.

Stephanus says that Apollonia in Pisidia was originally called Mordiaeon, and was celebrated for its quinces. (Athen. p. 81.) It is still noted for its quinces (Arundell), which have the great recommendation of being eatable without dressing. The coins of Apollonia record Alexander the Great as the founder, and also the name of a stream that flowed; by it, the Hippopharas. (Forbiger, vol. ii. p. 334.)


Of Mysia (. ἐπὶ Ῥυνδακῷ, Strab. p. 575), a description which misled some travellers and geographers, who fixed the site at Ulubad on the Rhyndacus. But the site is Abullionte, which is on a lake of the same name, the Apolloniatis of Strabo, who says that the town is on the lake. Some high land advances into the lake, and forms a narrow promontory, “off the SW. point of which is an island with the town of Abullionte.” (Hamilton, Researches, &c. vol. ii. p. 87.) The remains of Apollonia are inconsiderable. The Rhyndacus flows into the lake Apolloniatis, and issues from it a deep and muddy river. The lake extends from east to west, and is studded with many islands in the NE. part, on one of which is the town of Apollonia. (Hamilton.) The circuit of the lake is estimated by some travellers at about 50 miles, and its length about 10; but the dimensions vary considerably, for in winter the waters are much higher. It abounds in fish.


In Lycia, is conjectured by Spratt (Lycia, vol. i. p. 203) to have been at Sarahhajik, where there are remains of a Greek town. The modern site is in the interior NW. of Phaselis. The author discovered an inscription with the letters “Ap” on it. Stephanus (s. v.) mentions an island of the name belonging to Lycia; but there is no authority for a town of the name. There are, however, coins with the epigraph Ἀπολλωνιατων Λυκ. and Ἀπολλωνιατων Λυκ. Θρακ., which might indicate some place in Lycia. But these belong to Apollonia of Pisidia. [G.L]


Arâf), a town of Palestine, situated between [p. 1.162]Caesarea and Joppa. (Steph. B. sub voce Ptol. 5.16; Plin. Nat. 5.14; Pett. Tab.) The origin of its name is not known, but was probably owing to the Macedonian kings of either Aegypt or Syria. After having suffered in their wars, it was repaired by Gabinius, proconsul of Syria. (Joseph. B. J. 1.6.) Arsûf on the coast, a deserted village upon the Nakr Arsûf, represents the ancient Apollonia. (Robinson, Bibl. Res. vol. iii. p. 46; Irby and Mangles, Trav. p. 189; Chesney, Exped. Euplhrat. vol. i. p. 490.) Arsûf was famous in the time of the Crusades. (Wilken, die Kresuzz, vol. ii. pp. 17, 39, 102, vol. iv. p. 416, vol. vii. pp. 325, 400, 425.) The chroniclers confounded it with Antipatris, which lies further inland.


A town of Syria. The name attests its Macedonian origin. (Appian. Syr. 57.) Strabo (p. 752) mentions it as tributary to Apamea, but its position is uncertain. [E.B.J]

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