[*] 297. The main uses of hīc , ille , iste , and is are the following:— [*] a. Hīc is used of what is near the speaker (in time, place, or thought). It is hence called the demonstrative of the first person. It is sometimes used of the speaker himself; sometimes for “the latter” of two persons or things mentioned in speech or writing; more rarely for “the former,” when that, though more remote on the written page, is nearer the speaker in time, place, or thought. Often it refers to that which has just been mentioned. [*] b. Ille is used of what is remote (in time, etc.); and is hence called the demonstrative of the third person. It is sometimes used to mean “the former”; also (usually following its noun) of what is famous or well-known; often (especially the neuter illud ) to mean “the following.” [*] c. Iste is used of what is between the two others in remoteness: often in allusion to the person addressed,—hence called the demonstrative of the second person. It especially refers to one's opponent (in court, etc.), and frequently implies antagonism or contempt. [*] d. Is is a weaker demonstrative than the others and is especially common as a personal pronoun. It does not denote any special object, but refers to one just mentioned, or to be afterwards explained by a relative. Often it is merely a correlative to the relative quī :—
- “vēnit mihi obviam tuus puer, is mihi litterās abs tē reddidit ” (Att. 2.1.1) , your boy met me, he delivered to me a letter from you.
- eum quem, one whom.
- “ eum cōnsulem quī nōn dubitet ” (Cat. 4.24) , a consul who will not hesitate.
- “est illud quidem vel maximum, animum vidēre ” (Tusc. 1.52) , that is in truth a very great thing,—to see the soul.
- “nūllam virtūs aliam mercēdem dēsīderat praeter hanc laudis ” (Arch. 28) , virtue wants no other reward except that [just mentioned] of praise.
[*] Note.--But the ordinary English use of that of is hardly known in Latin. Commonly the genitive construction is continued without a pronoun, or some other construction is preferred:—
- “cum eī Simōnidēs artem memoriae pollicērētur: oblīviōnis, inquit, māllem ” (Fin. 2.104) , when Simonides promised him the art of memory, “I should prefer,” said he, “[that] of forgetfulness.”
- Caesaris exercitus Pompêiānōs ad Pharsālum vīcit, the army of Cæsar defeated that of Pompey (the Pompeians) at Pharsalus.