[*] 439. The Hortatory Subjunctive is used in the present tense to express an exhortation or a command. The negative is nē .
- “hōs latrōnēs interficiāmus ” (B. G. 7.38) , let us kill these robbers.
- “ caveant intemperantiam, meminerint verēcundiae ” (Off. 1.122) , let them shun excess and cherish modesty.
[*] Note 2.--The term hortatory subjunctive is sometimes restricted to the first person plural, the second and third persons being designated as the jussive subjunctive; but the constructions are substantially identical.
[*] Note 3.--Once in Cicero and occasionally in the poets and later writers the negative with the hortatory subjunctive is nōn : as,—ā “lēgibus nōn recēdāmus” (Clu. 155) , let us not abandon the laws.[*] a. The Second Person of the hortatory subjunctive is used only of an indefinite subject, except in prohibitions, in early Latin, and in poetry:—
- “iniūriās fortūnae, quās ferre nequeās, dēfugiendō relinquās ” (Tusc. 5.118) , the wrongs of fortune, which you cannot bear, leave behind by flight.
- “ exoriāre aliquis ultor ” (Aen. 4.625) , rise, some avenger.
- “istō bonō ūtāre dum adsit, cum absit nē requīrās ” (Cat. M. 33) , use this blessing while it is present; when it is wanting do not regret it.
- “ doceās iter et sacra ōstia pandās ” (Aen. 6.109) , show us the way and lay open the sacred portals.
- “ morerētur, inquiēs ” (Rab. Post. 29) , he should have died, you will say.
- “potius docēret ” (Off. 3.88) , he should rather have taught.
- “nē poposcissēs ” (Att. 2.1.3) , you should not have asked.
- “saltem aliquid dē pondere dētrāxisset ” (Fin. 4.57) , at least he should have taken something from the weight.
[*] Note 1.--In this construction the Pluperfect usually differs from the Imperfect only in more clearly representing the time for action as momentary or as past.