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[13] Now earthquakes take place in four ways; for they are either brasmatiae, 1 or upheavings, which lift up the ground from far within, like a tide and force upward huge masses, as in Asia Delos came to the surface, and Hiera, Anaphe, and Rhodes, called in former ages Ophiusa and Pelagia, and once drenched with a shower of gold; 2 also Eleusis 3 in Boeotia, Vulcanus in the Tyrrhenian Sea, and many more islands. Or they are climatiae 4 which rush along to one side and obliquely, levelling cities, buildings, and mountains. Or they are chasmatiae, or gaping, which with their intensive movement suddenly open abysses and swallow up parts of the earth; as in the Atlantic Ocean an island more extensive than all Europe, 5 and in the Crisaean Gulf, 6 Helice and Bura; and in the Ciminian district of Italy the town of Saccumum; 7 these were all sunk into the deep abysses of Erebus, and lie hidden in eternal darkness.

1 A Greek word from βράζειν. “boil up.”

2 Cf. Claudian, De Cons. Stil. iii. 226, Auratos Rhodiis imbres nascente Minerva indulsisse lovem perhibent: Iiacd ii. 670; Pindar, Olymp. 7, 59 ff. (L.C.L. pp. 72 f.)

3 An ancient town of Boeotia near Lake Copais. It was not swallowed up by an earthquake, but destroyed by an inundation (Strabo, ix. 2, 18; Paus. ix. 24, 2); and it was not an island.

4 Moving sidewise.

5 Atlantis; see Plato, Timaeus, pp. 24e-25a.

6 Salona Bay, a part of the Corinthian Gulf; see Diod. xiv. 48, 49.

7 Its exact location is unknown: it was near Lago di Vico.

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