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Valens Augustus makes war on the Goths, who had sent aid to Procopius against him, and after three years concludes peace with them.

After Procopius had been vanquished in 1 Phrygia, and the source of internal strife lulled to rest, Victor, commander of the cavalry, was sent to the Goths, 2 in order to get clear information why a people friendly to the Romans and bound by the treaties of a long-continued peace had lent support to a usurper who was making war on the legitimate emperors. They, in order to excuse their action by a strong defence, presented a letter from the said [p. 31] Procopius, in which he asserted that he had assumed the sovereignty that was due him as nearly related to the family of Constantine; 3 and they maintained that their error was pardonable.

[2] When this was learned from the report of the 4 aforesaid Victor, Valens, taking little account of so trivial an excuse, marched against the Goths, who already knew of the coming activity. Getting his army together at the beginning of spring, he measured off a camp near the fortress called Daphne; 5 and having made a bridge of planks over the gangways of ships, he crossed the river Hister without any opposition. [3] And now he was exalted in confidence, since, as he hastened hither and thither, he found no one whom he could conquer or terrify; for all had been struck with fear at the approach of the soldiers with their splendid equipment, and made for the mountains of the Serri, which are lofty and inaccessible except to those who are thoroughly familiar with them. [4] Therefore, to avoid wasting the whole summer and returning without accomplishing anything, he sent Arintheus, commander of the infantry, with plundering bands and seized some of the families which could be captured before they reached the steep and winding mountainregions and while they were still wandering over the level plains. And after having attained only this, which was what chance offered him, he returned harmlessly with his men, without having inflicted or suffered serious harm.

[5] In the following year, having attempted with 6 equal energy to invade the enemy's territory, he was prevented by extensive floods of the Danube [p. 33] and remained inactive, near a village of the Carpi in a permanent camp which he had made, until the end of autumn. And since he was cut off by the extent of the waters from doing anything, he returned from there to Marcianopolis for winter quarters.

[6] With like persistence in the third year also he 7 made a bridge of boats to cross the river at Novidunum and forced his way into the barbarian territory; and after continuous marches he attacked the warlike people of the Greuthungi, who lived very far off, and after some slight contests Athanaricus, 8 at that time their most powerful ruler, 9 who dared to resist with a band which he believed to be more than sufficient for himself, was forced to flee, in fear of utter destruction. Then he himself with all his men returned to Marcianopolis as a suitable place (considering that region) for passing the winter.

[7] After the many vicissitudes of these three years timely opportunities arose for ending the war. 10 First, because the long stay of the emperor was increasing the enemy's fears; secondly, because the savages, since commerce was cut off, were so distressed by extreme scarcity of the necessities of life that they often sent suppliant deputations to beg for pardon and peace. [8] The emperor was indeed inexperienced, but very reasonable as yet in his judgment of conditions, until he was led astray by the fatal blandishments of his flatterers and inflicted on his country losses ever to be lamented; therefore, [p. 35] consulting for the common welfare, he decided that peace ought to be granted. [9] Accordingly, he in his turn sent as envoys Victor and Arintheus, of whom one then commanded the cavalry and the other the infantry, and when their trustworthy report had informed him that the Goths agreed to the conditions which he offered, a convenient place was appointed for concluding peace. But since Athanaricus declared that he was bound by an oath accompanied 11 by a fearful imprecation, and thus prevented by his father's orders from ever setting foot on Roman soil, and since he could not be induced to do so, and it was unbecoming and degrading for the emperor to cross to him, it was decided by those of good judgment that ships should be rowed into mid-stream, one carrying the emperor with his guard, the other the Gothic ruler with his men, and that thus a treaty of peace should be struck, as had been agreed. [10] When this had been arranged and hostages received, Valens returned to Constantinople, where later Athanaricus, driven from his native land by a faction of his kinsmen, died a natural death and was buried after our fashion with splendid rites. 12

1 366 A.D.

2 The Moeso-Goths in Dacia. Zos. iv. 10, 11, calls them Scythians.

3 See xxvi. 6, 1; 7, 10.

4 367 A.D.

5 In Moesia Secunda, a province formed by Constantine the Great to oppose the Goths, and therefore called on coins by the name of Constantiniana Daphne.

6 368 A.D.

7 369 A.D.

8 When Fritigern with the Goths crossed the Danube and planned to war upon Achaia, they feared to leave Athanaricus behind, since he had remained true to the Romans. He was received at Constantinople by Theodosius in a friendly manner and died in 381. The Goths who had come with Athanaricus were so pleased by his royal funeral that they fought bravely for Theodosius. Cf. Zosimus, iv. 34.

9 See Introd., Vol. I, p. xxvi, note 2, for this use of iudex.

10 367 A.D.

11 367 A.D.

12 See p. 32, note 1.

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