[1054b] [1] and again (c) if the formula of the primary substance is one, e.g., equal straight lines are the same, and equal quadrilaterals with equal angles, and there are many more examples; but in these equality means unity.

Things are "similar"1(a) if, while not being the same absolutely or indistinguishable in respect of their concrete substance, they are identical in form; e.g the larger square is similar to the smaller, and unequal straight lines are similar. These are similar, but not absolutely the same. (b) If, having the same form, and being capable of difference in degree, they have no difference of degree.(c) If things have an attribute which is the same and one in form—e.g. white—in different degrees, we say that they are similar because their form is one. (d) If the respects in which they are the same are more than those in which they differ, either in general or as regards their more prominent qualities; e.g., tin is similar to silver, as being white; and gold to fire, as being yellow or flame-colored.

Thus it is obvious that "Other"2 and "Unlike" also have several meanings. (a) In one sense "other" is used in the sense opposite to "the same"; thus everything in relation to every other thing is either "the same" or "other." (b) In another sense things are "other" unless both their matter and their formula are one; thus you are "other" than your neighbor. (c) The third sense is that which is found in mathematics.3 Therefore everything in relation to everything else is called either "other" or "the same"; that is, in the case of things of which unity and being are predicated; [20] for "other" is not the contradictory of "the same," and so it is not predicated of non-existent things (they are called "not the same"), but it is predicated of all things which exist; for whatever is by nature existent and one is either one or not one with something else.

"Other" and "same," then, are opposed in this way; but "difference"4 is distinct from "otherness."For that which is "other" than something need not be other in a particular respect, since everything which is existent is either "other" or "the same." But that which is different from something is different in some particular respect, so that that in which they differ must be the same sort of thing; i.e. the same genus or species.For everything which is different differs either in genus or in species—in genus, such things as have not common matter and cannot be generated into or out of each other, e.g. things which belong to different categories; and in species, such things as are of the same genus (genus meaning that which is predicated of both the different things alike in respect of their substance).

The contraries5 are different, and contrariety is a kind of difference. That this is rightly premissed is made clear by induction; for the contraries are obviously all different, since they are not merely "other," but some are other in genus, and others are in the same line of predication,

1 Or "like." Cf. Aristot. Met. 5.9.5.

3 sc. as opposed to "same" in sense (a); 3 above.

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