previous next

whereas “freedom” by the side of “valor” produces a kind of antithesis. And as Iphicrates said, “The path of my words leads through the center of the deeds of Chares”; here the metaphor is proportional and the words “through the center” create vividness. Also, to say that one “calls upon dangers to help against dangers” is a vivid metaphor. And Lycoleon on behalf of Chabrias said, “not even reverencing the suppliant attitude of his statue of bronze,”1 a metaphor for the moment, not for all time, but still vivid; for when Chabrias is in danger, the statue intercedes for him, the inanimate becomes animate, the memorial of what he has done for the State. And “in every way studying poorness of spirit,”2 for “studying” a thing implies to increase it.3 And that “reason is a light that God has kindled in the soul,” for both the words reason and light make something clear. “For we do not put an end to wars, but put them off,”4 for both ideas refer to the future—putting off and a peace of such a kind. And again, it is a metaphor to say that such a treaty is “a trophy far more splendid than those gained in war; for the latter are raised in memory of trifling advantages and a single favor of fortune, but the former commemorates the end of the whole war”;5 for both treaty and trophy are signs of victory. Again, that cities also render
a heavy account to the censure of men; for rendering an account6 is a sort of just punishment.

11. We have said that smart sayings are derived from proportional metaphor and expressions which set things before the eyes. We must now explain the meaning of “before the eyes,” and what must be done to produce this. [2] I mean that things are set before the eyes by words that signify actuality. For instance, to say that a good man is “four-square”7 is a metaphor, for both these are complete, but the phrase does not express actuality, whereas “of one having the prime of his life in full bloom”8 does; similarly, “thee, like a sacred animal ranging at will”9 expresses actuality, and in “ Thereupon the Greeks shooting forward with their feet10

” the word “shooting” contains both actuality and metaphor. [3] And as Homer often, by making use of metaphor, speaks of inanimate things as if they were animate; and it is to creating actuality in all such cases that his popularity is due, as in the following examples: “ Again the ruthless stone rolled down to the plain.11

” “ The arrow flew.12

” “ [The arrow] eager to fly [towards the crowd].13

1 The statue of Chabrias, erected after one of his victories, represented him as kneeling on the ground, the position which he had ordered his soldiers to take up when awaiting the enemy. The statue was in the agora and could be seen from the court. Lycoleon points to it, and bases his appeal on its suppliant attitude.

2 Isoc. 4.151.

3 Metaphor from species to genus (10.7, first note.), “studying” being a species of “increasing.” As a rule one studies to increase some good quality, not a bad one.

4 Isoc. 4.172.

5 Isoc. 4.180 (apparently from memory).

6 εὔθυνα (see 10.7, third note) further implies the punishment for an unsatisfactory statement of accounts.

7 Simonides, frag. 5 (P.L.G. 2.). Both a good man and a square are complete as far as they go, but they do not express actuality.

8 Isoc. 5.10.

9 Isoc. 5.127. This speech is an appeal to Philip to lead the Greeks against Persia. As a sacred animal could roam where it pleased within the precincts of its temple, so Philip could claim the whole of Greece as his fatherland, while other descendants of Heracles (whom Isocrates calls the author of Philip's line) were tied down and their outlook narrowed by the laws and constitution of the city in which they dwelt.

10 Eur. IA 80, with δορί for ποσίν.

11 Hom. Od. 11.598, with ἔπειτα πέδονδε for ἐπὶ δάπεδόνδε.

12 Hom. Il. 13.587.

13 Hom. Il. 4.126.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 United States License.

An XML version of this text is available for download, with the additional restriction that you offer Perseus any modifications you make. Perseus provides credit for all accepted changes, storing new additions in a versioning system.

load focus Greek (W. D. Ross, 1959)
hide Places (automatically extracted)

View a map of the most frequently mentioned places in this document.

Sort places alphabetically, as they appear on the page, by frequency
Click on a place to search for it in this document.
Persia (Iran) (1)
Greece (Greece) (1)

Download Pleiades ancient places geospacial dataset for this text.

hide Display Preferences
Greek Display:
Arabic Display:
View by Default:
Browse Bar: