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أَسِفَ ذ , aor. اَسَفَ , inf. n. أَسَفٌ, (M, Msb, K,) He grieved, lamented, or regretted: and he was angry: (Msb:) or he grieved exceedingly: and he was exceedingly angry: (M:) or he grieved most intensely: (K:) some say that أَسَفٌ signifies the grieving for a thing that has escaped; not in an absolute sense: (MF:) or it properly signifies the rising, or swelling, or mantling, of the blood of the heart, from desire of vengeance; and when this is against an inferior, it is anger; but when against a superior, it is grief. (Er-Rághib.) Mo- hammad, being asked respecting sudden death, answered, saying, رَاحَةٌ لِلْمُؤْمِنِ وَأَخْذَةُ أَسَفٍ لِلْكَافِرِ, or accord. to one recital, ↓ أَسِفٍ , i. e. [Rest, or ease, to the believer, and an act of punishment] of anger [to the unbeliever], or of one who is angry. (K.) You say, أَسِفَ عَلَى مَا فَاتَهُ, inf. n. as above; (S;) and ↓ تأسّف ; (S, M, * K; *) He grieved, or lamented, for, or at, or regretted, most intensely, what had escaped him: (S, M, * K:) and أَسِفَ عَلَيْهِ, (S, K,) inf. n. as above, (S,) he was angry with him, or at it: (S, K:) or أَسِفَ فُلَانٌ عَلَى كَذَا وَكَذَا and ↓ تأسّف , signify, accord. to some, such a one grieved, or lamented, for, or at, such and such things which had escaped him: or, accord. to others, grieved, or lamented, most intensely. (IAmb.) أَسَفًا in the Kur xviii. 5 means, accord. to Ed-Dahhák, جَزَعًا [i.e. In grief, or in most violent grief, &c.]: or, accord. to Katádeh, in anger. (TA.) And يَا أَسَفَا عَلَى يُوسُفِ, in the Kur [xii. 84], means يَا جَزَعَاهُ [O my grief for Joseph: or O my most violent grief]. (TA.) 4 آسفهُ آسفه آسفة (in [some of] the copies of the K, erroneously, أَسَفَهُ, TA) He angered him; made him angry: (S, M, * O, L, Msb, K:) and he grieved him; made him to grieve, or lament. (M,* TA.) 5 تَاَسَّفَ see 1, in two places. ― -b2- تَأَسَّفَتْ يَدَهُ (tropical:) i. q. تَشَعَّثَتْ [app. meaning His hand became bruised, or mangled; or became cracked, or chapped]. (M, TA.) أَسَفٌ ذ inf. n. of 1, which see throughout. [Used as a subst., i. q. أَسَافةٌ.] أَسِفٌ ذ (M, Mgh, Msb) and ↓ اسِفٌ and ↓ أَسْفَانُ and ↓ أَسِيفٌ (M, TA) and ↓ أَسُوفٌ (M) Angry: (Mgh, Msb, TA:) or exceedingly angry. (M.) For an ex. of the first, see 1. See also أَسِيفٌ, in two places. أَسْفَانُ ذ : see أَسِفٌ: and أَسِيفٌ. إِِسَافٌ اساف (S, M, Sgh, &c.) and أَسَافٌ (IAth, K) A certain idol, (S, M, K,) belonging to Kureysh, (S, M,) as was also نَائِلَةُ; (S;) the former of which was placed, by 'Amr Ibn-Loheí, upon Es-Safà, and the latter upon El-Marweh; and he used to sacrifice to them, in front of the Kaabeh: (S, K:) or, (S, M, K,) as some assert, (S,) these two were two persons of Jurhum, (S, K,) a man and a woman, (M,) اساف the son of 'Amr, and نائلة the daughter of Sahl, (S, K,) who committed fornication in the Kaabeh, and were therefore changed into two stones, (S, M, K,) which Kureysh afterwards worshipped. (S, K.) [Other accounts of them are also given, slightly differing from the latter above.] أَسُوفٌ ذ : see أَسِيفٌ, in two places: and see أَسِفٌ. أَسِيفٌ ذ Grieving, lamenting, or regretting, (K, * TA,) most intensely, on account of a thing that has escaped: (M, TA:) and quickly affected with grief, (S, Mgh, K,) and tender-hearted; as also ↓ أَسُوفٌ : (S, K:) or, as also ↓ أَسُوفٌ (M) and ↓ أَسْفَانُ and ↓ آسِفٌ (M, TA) and ↓ أَسِفٌ , (M,) grieving exceedingly: (M:) or grieved: (TA:) and sometimes the first signifies angry, and at the same time grieving, or lamenting: (S:) pl. أُسَفَآءُ. (M.) See also أَسِفٌ. ― -b2- A slave: (ISk, S, M, K:) and a hired man: (ISk, M, K:) because of their state of abasement and subjection: fem. with ة: (M:) and pl. as above. (S, M.) ― -b3- A captive. (TA.) ― -b4- A very old man: (K:) pl. as above: so in a trad., in which the slaying of such is forbidden. (TA.) ― -b5- One who scarcely, or never, becomes fat. (K.) ― -b6- (assumed tropical:) A region, or country, that does not give growth to anything, or produce any vegetation; as also أَسِيفَةٌ and ↓ أُسَافَةٌ and ↓ أَسَافَةٌ : (M:) and ↓ أَسَافَةٌ also signifies (assumed tropical:) thin, or shallow, earth: (AHn, M:) and أَرْضٌ أَسِيفَةٌ, (tropical:) thin, or shallow, earth, which scarcely, or never, gives growth to anything, or produces any vegetation: (S:) or which is not commended for its vegetation: (A, TA:) or, as also ↓ أُسَافَةٌ and ↓ أَسَافَةٌ , (assumed tropical:) thin, or shallow, earth: or such as does not produce vegetation: and ↓ (assumed tropical:) أَرْضٌ أَسِفَةٌ land which scarcely, or never, produces vegetation. (K.) أَسَافَةٌ ذ [Grief, lamentation, or regret: and anger: (see 1:) or] excessive grief: and excessive anger: (M:) or most intense grief: (K:) a subst. from أَسِفَ. (M, K.) ― -b2- The state, or condition, of a slave: (M, K:) and, of a hired man. (M.) ― -b3- (tropical:) The state, or condition, of land which scarcely, or never, produces vegetation. (K, TA.) -A2- See أَسِيفٌ, in three places. أَسَافَةٌ ذ : see أَسِيفٌ, in two places. آسِفٌ آسف : see أَسِيفٌ: and أَسِفٌ.
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