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CLEO´NAE (Κλεωναί: Eth. Κλεωναῖος).


A city in Peloponnesus, described by writers of the Roman period as a city of Argolis, but never included in the Argeia or territory of Argos, in the flourishing period of Greek history. Cleonae was situated on the road from Argos to Corinth, at the distance of 120 stadia from the former city, and 80 stadia from the latter. (Strab.viii. p.377.) The narrow pass through the mountains, called Tretus, leading from Argos to Cleonae, is described elsewhere [p. 201,a.]. Cleonae stood in a small plain upon a river flowing into the Corinthian gulf a little westward of Lechaeum. This river is now called Longo: its ancient name appears to have been Langeia (Stat. Theb. 4.51; Leake, Peloponnesiaca, p. 391). In its territory was Mt. Apesas, now called Fuka, connected with the Acro-Corinthus by a rugged range of hills. Both Strabo and Pausanias describe Cleonae as a small place; and the former writer, who saw it from the Acrocorinthus, says that it is situated upon a hill surrounded on all sides by buildings, and well walled, so as to deserve the epithet given to it by Homer (II. 2.570):--ἐϋκτιμένας Κλεωνάς. Statius also speaks of “ingenti turritae mole Cleonae.” (Theb. 4.47.) The existing ruins, though scanty, justify these descriptions. They are found at a hamlet still called Klenes, not far from the village Kurtési. According to Dodwell, they occupy “a circular and insulated hill, which seems to have been completely covered with buildings. On the side of the hill are six ancient terrace walls rising one above another, on which the houses and streets are situated.”

Cleonae possessed only a small territory. It derived its chief importance from the Nemean games being celebrated in its territory, in the grove of Nemea, between Cleonae and Phlius. [NEMEA] Hence the festival is called by Pindar ἀγὼν Κλεωναῖος (Nem. 4.27). Hercules is said to have slain Eurytus and Cteatus, the sons of Actor, near Cleonae; and Diodorus mentions a temple of Hercules erected in the neighbourhood of the city in memory of that event. (Paus. 5.2.1, seq.; Pind. O. 10.36; Diod. 4.33.)

Cleonae is said to have derived its name either from Cleones, the son of Pelops, or from Cleone, the daughter of the river-god Asopus. (Paus. 2.15.1.) It was conquered by the Dorians, whereupon some of its inhabitants, together with those of the neighbouring town of Phlius, are said to have founded Clazomenae in Asia Minor. (Paus. 7.3.9.) In the Dorian conquest, Cleonae formed part of the lot of Temenus, and in early times was one of the confederated allies or subordinates of Argos. (Grote, History of Greece, vol. ii. p. 417.) Indeed in the historical period, Cleonae was for the most part closely connected with Argos. After the Persian wars, the Cleonaeans assisted the Argives in subduing Mycenae (Strab. viii. p.377); and they fought as. the allies of Argos at the battle of Mantineia, B.C. 418. (Thuc. 5.67.) Of their subsequent history nothing is known, though their city is occasionally mentioned down to the time of Ptolemy. (Xen. Hell. 7.5. 15; Plb. 2.52; Liv. 33.14, 34.25; Ov. Met. 6.417; Paus. 2.15; Plin. Nat. 4.6. s. 10: Ptol. 3.16.20; Dodwell, Classical Tour, vol. ii. p. 206; Leake, Morea, vol. iii. p. 324, seq.; Boblaye, Recherches, &c., p. 41.)



A town of Chalcidice, in Macedonia, situated on the peninsula of Mt. Athos, and probably on the western coast, south of Thyssus. (Hdt. 7.22; Thuc. 4.109; Scylax, p. 26; Strab. vii. p.331; Mela, 2.2; Plin. Nat. 4.10. s. 17; Leake, Northern Greece, vol. iii. p. 149, seq.)


A town of Phocis. [HYAMPOLIS]

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