, Ptol.), one of the four towns of Doris, more frequently mentioned in history than the other towns of the Tetrapolis.
This appears to have been owing to its situation, which rendered it a place of great military importance. Its site corresponds to Graviá,
which “stands exactly at the northern entrance of the pass leading from the valley of Doris to the plain of Amphissa, in the middle of the isthmus included between the Maliac and Crissaean gulfs.
The defile is formed by the ravines of two torrents flowing in opposite directions; namely, that of Graviá,
which joins the Apostoliá,
near the union of the latter with the Cephissus, and that of another stream which crosses the plain of Amphissa into the Crissaean bay.” The position of the town, thus commanding this defile, illustrates the intended expedition of Demosthenes from Naupactus in B.C. 426.
This commander proposed, if he had been successful over the Aetolians, to have marched through the Locri Ozolae, leaving Parnassus on the right, to Cytinium in Doris, and from thence to have descended into Phocis, whose inhabitants were to have joined him in invading Boeotia. (Thuc. 3.95
.) When Eurylochus, the Spartan, shortly after the failure of the expedition of Demosthenes, was about to march from Delphi against Naupactus, he deposited at Cytinium the hostages he had received from the Locrians. (Thuc. 3.101
.) In B.C. 338, Cytinium was seized by Philip, from whence he marched upon Amphissa (Philochor. ap. Dionys. p. 742). (Comp. Scylax, p. 24
; Strab. ix. p.427
, x. p. 476; Plin. Nat. 4.7. s. 13
; Steph. B. sub voce Κύτινα; Ptol. 3.15.15
; Leake, Northern Greece,
vol. ii. p. 92, seq.)