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When Nausigenes was archon at Athens, in Rome four military tribunes with consular power were elected, Lucius Papirius, Lucius Menenius, Servius Cornelius, and Servius Sulpicius; and the Eleians celebrated the hundred third Olympiad, in which Pythostratus the Athenian won the stadium race. During their term of office Ptolemy2of Alorus, son of Amyntas, assassinated Alexander, his brother-in-law, and was king of Macedon for three years. [2] In Boeotia Pelopidas, whose military reputation rivalled that of Epameinondas, saw that the latter had arranged the Peloponnesian affairs to the advantage of the Boeotians, and was eager to be the instrument whereby districts outside of the Peloponnese were won for the Thebans. Taking along with him as his associate Ismenias, a friend of his, and a man who was admired for his valour, he entered Thessaly.3 There he met Alexander, the tyrant of Pherae, but was suddenly arrested with Ismenias, and placed under guard. [3] The Thebans, incensed at what had been done, dispatched with all speed eight thousand hoplites and six hundred cavalry into Thessaly, so frightening Alexander that he dispatched ambassadors to Athens for an alliance.4 The Athenian people immediately sent him thirty ships and a thousand men under the command of Autocles. [4] While Autocles was making the circuit of Euboea, the Thebans entered Thessaly. Though Alexander had gathered his infantry and had many times more horsemen than the Boeotians, at first the Boeotians decided to settle the war by battle, for they had the Thessalians as supporters; but when the latter left them in the lurch and the Athenians and some other allies joined Alexander, and they found their provisions of food and drink and all their other supplies giving out, the boeotarchs decided to return home. [5] When they had broken camp and were proceeding through level country, Alexander trailed them with a large body of cavalry and attacked their rear. A number of Boeotians perished under the continuous rain of darts, others fell wounded, until finally, being permitted neither to halt nor to proceed, they were reduced to utter helplessness, as was natural when they were also running short of provisions. [6] When they had now abandoned hope, Epameinondas, who was at that time serving as a private soldier, was appointed general by the men. Quickly selecting the light-armed men and cavalry, he took them with him, and, posting himself in the rear, with their aid checked the enemy pursuers and provided complete security for the heavy-armed men in the front ranks; and by wheeling about and offering battle and using masterly formations he saved the army. [7] By these repeated successes he more and more enhanced his own reputation and won the warm approbation of both his fellow citizens and allies. But the Thebans brought judgement against the boeotarchs of the day and punished them with a heavy fine.

1 368/7 B.C.

2 Ptolemy of Alorus was the husband of Eurynoe, daughter of Amyntas III and Eurydice (Justin 7.4.5, 7), hence the use of τὸν ἀδελφόν. He may well have been the son of an Amyntas since the name was common in Macedonia. After Alexander's death he took the regency for Perdiccas (Aeschin. 2.29) and married the Queen dowager Eurydice (sch. ibid.; Justin 7.4.7). If he was king, no coins were issued in his name. (See Beloch (2), 3.2.67.) See also Plut. Pelopidas 27; Marsyas in Athenaeus Deip. 14.629d.

3 For this venture see Plut Pelopidas 27 ff.; Paus. 9.15.1-2: Nepos Pelopidas 5.

4 For the alliance see Plut. Pelopidas 31.4, Plut. Apophthegmata Epaminondou 17 (193); Dem. 23.120; IG, 2(2). 1.116.39 f.

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