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The peoples who had revolted from the King chose as their general Orontes in charge of all branches of the administration. He, having taken over the command and funds needed for recruiting mercenaries, amounting to a year's pay for twenty thousand men, proceeded to betray his trust. For suspecting that he would obtain from the King not only great rewards but would also succeed to the satrapy of all the coastal region if he should deliver the rebels into the hands of the Persians, he first arrested those who brought the money and dispatched them to Artaxerxes; then afterward he delivered many of the cities and the soldiers who had been hired to the commanding officers who had been sent by the King. [2] In a similar manner, betrayal occurred also in Cappadocia, where a strange and unexpected thing took place. Artabazus,1 the King's general, had invaded Cappadocia with a large army, and Datames,2 the satrap of the country, had taken the field against him, for he had collected many horsemen and had twenty thousand mercenary foot-soldiers serving with him. [3] But the father-in-law of Datames, who commanded the cavalry, wishing to acquire favour and at the same time having an eye to his own safety, deserted at night and rode off with the cavalry to the enemy, having the day before made arrangements with Artabazus for the betrayal. [4] Datames then summoned his mercenaries, promised them largess, and launched an attack upon the deserters. Finding them on the point of joining forces with the enemy and himself attacking at the same time Artabazus' guard and the horsemen, he slew all who came to close quarters. [5] Artabazus, at first unaware of the truth and suspecting that the man who had deserted Datames was effecting a counter-betrayal, ordered his own men to slay all the horsemen who approached. And Mithrobarzanes,3 caught between the two parties—one group seeking revenge against him as a traitor; the other trying to punish him for counter-betrayal—was in a predicament, but since the situation allowed no time to deliberate, he had recourse to force, and fighting against both parties caused grievous slaughter. When, finally, more than ten thousand had been slain, Datames, having put the rest of Mithrobarzanes' men to flight and slain many of them, recalled with the trumpet his soldiers who had gone in pursuit. [6] Amongst the survivors in the cavalry some went back to Datames and asked for pardon; the rest did nothing, having nowhere to turn, and finally, being about five hundred in number, were surrounded and shot down by Datames. [7] As for Datames, though even before this he was admired for his generalship, at that time he won far greater acclaim for both his courage and his sagacity in the art of war; but King Artaxerxes, when he learned about Datames' exploit as general, because he was impatient to be rid of him, instigated his assassination.4

1 Artabazus was the son of Pharnabazus (90.3, note) and Apame, daughter of Artaxerxes (Plut. Artaxerxes 27.4; Xen. Hell. 5.1.28), born about 387 or later. He married the sister of Memnon and Mentor (Book 16.52.4) about 362. For his history see Beloch, Griechische Geschichte (2), 3 2.147-149.

2 Datames was the son of Camisares who ruled over part of Cappadocia (see Life by Nepos). He was probably leader of an offensive of the satraps at the time of Tachos invasion of Syria (see Polyaenus 7.21.3). It was probably in the summer of 359 that Artabazus invaded Cappadocia, and at the latest in the following winter that Datames was murdered by Ariobarzanes' son Mithridates (Nepos Datames 10-11; Polyaenus 7.29.1). For a longer account see Beloch, Griechische Geschichte (2), 3.2.254-257; also Tarn, Cambridge Ancient History, 6.20-21; Olmstead, History of the Persian Empire, 411 ff.

3 This was the name of the traitor. For different versions of this story see Nepos Datames 6; Polyaenus 7.21.7; and Frontinus Strat. 2.7.9.

4 See 91.2, note.

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