When Theellus was
archon in Athens, the Romans elected as consuls Marcus Fabius and Titus Quintius. During their
term of office the Thebans, growing weary of the war against the Phocians and finding
themselves short of funds, sent ambassadors to the King of the Persians urging him to furnish
the city with a large sum of money.
acceding to the request, made a gift to them of three hundred talents of silver.2
Between the Boeotians and the Phocians skirmishes and raids on each
other's territory occurred but no actions worth mentioning took place during this year.
In Asia the King of the
Persians, who had in the period treated above made an expedition into Egypt with vast
multitudes of soldiers and was unsuccessful, in the period with which we are now dealing again
made war on the Egyptians and, after carrying out some remarkable feats by his own forceful
activity, regained possession of Egypt, Phoenicia, and Cyprus.3
To make clear the history of these events I shall set forth
first the causes of the war by reviewing again briefly the period to which these events
properly belong. We recall that, when the Egyptians revolted from the Persians in the earlier
period, Artaxerxes, known as Ochus,4
himself unwarlike, remained
inactive, and though he sent out armies and generals many times, failed in his attempts because
of the cowardice and inexperience of the leaders.
though regarded with contempt by the Egyptians, he was compelled to be patient because of his
own inertia and peace-loving nature. But in the period now under discussion, when the
Phoenicians and the kings in Cyprus had imitated the Egyptians and in contemptuous disregard of
him made a move to revolt, he became enraged and decided to make war upon the insurgents.
So he rejected the practice of sending out generals, and
adopted the plan of carrying out in person the struggles to preserve his kingdom. Wherefore,
having made great provision of arms, missiles, food, and forces, he assembled three hundred
thousand foot-soldiers, thirty thousand horsemen, three hundred triremes, and five hundred
merchantmen and other ships to carry the supplies.