First he dealt with the Thessalians,
reminding them of his ancient relationship to them through Heracles and raising their hopes by
kindly words and by rich promises as well, and prevailed upon them by formal vote of the
Thessalian League to recognize as his the leadership of Greece which he had inherited from his
Next he won over the neighbouring tribes similarly, and so
marched down to Pylae, where he convened the assembly of the Amphictyons and had them pass a
resolution granting him the leadership of the Greeks.
audience to the envoys of the Ambraciots and, addressing them in friendly fashion, convinced
them that they had been only a little premature in grasping the independence that he was on the
point of giving them voluntarily.
In order to overawe those who refused to yield otherwise, he set out at the head of
the army of the Macedonians in full battle array. With forced marches he arrived in Boeotia and
encamping near the Cadmeia threw the city of the Thebans into a panic.
As the Athenians immediately learned that the king had passed into
Boeotia, they too abandoned their previous refusal to take him seriously. So much the rapid
moves and energetic action of the young man shook the confidence of those who opposed him.
The Athenians, accordingly, voted to bring into the city
their property scattered throughout Attica and to look to the repair of their walls, but they
also sent envoys to Alexander, asking forgiveness for tardy recognition of his leadership.
Even Demosthenes was included
among the envoys; he did not, however, go with the others to Alexander, but turned back at
Cithaeron and returned to Athens, whether fearful because of the anti-Macedonian course that he
had pursued in politics, or merely wishing to leave no ground of complaint to the king of
He was generally believed to have received large sums
of money from that source in payment for his efforts to check the Macedonians, and indeed
Aeschines is said to have referred to this in a speech when he taunted Demosthenes with his
venality:“At the moment, it is true, his extravagance has been glutted by the king's
gold, but even this will not satisfy him; no wealth has ever proved sufficient for a greedy
Alexander addressed the Athenian envoys kindly and freed the
people from their acute terror.
Then he called a meeting at
Corinth of envoys and delegates, and when the usual representatives came, he spoke to them in
moderate terms and had them pass a resolution appointing him general plenipotentiary of the
Greeks and undertaking themselves to join in an expedition against Persia seeking satisfaction
for the offences which the Persians had committed against Greece.3
Successful in this, the king
returned to Macedonia with his army.