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When Aristophon was archon at Athens, the consular office at Rome was assumed by Gaius Domitius and Aulus Cornelius.2 In this year word was brought to Greece about the battle near Arbela, and many of the cities became alarmed at the growth of Macedonian power and decided that they should strike for their freedom while the Persian cause was still alive. [2] They expected that Dareius would help them and send them much money so that they could gather great armies of mercenaries, while Alexander would not be able to divide his forces. [3] If, on the other hand, they watched idly while the Persians were utterly defeated, the Greeks would be isolated and never again be able to think of recovering their freedom. [4]

There was also an upheaval in Thrace at just this time which seemed to offer the Greeks an opportunity for freeing themselves. [5] Memnon, who had been designated governor-general there, had a military force and was a man of spirit. He stirred up the tribesmen, revolted against Alexander, quickly possessed a large army, and was openly bent on war. [6] Antipater was forced to mobilize his entire army and to advance through Macedonia into Thrace to settle with him.3

While Antipater was occupied with this,4 the Lacedaemonians thought that the time had come to undertake a war and issued an appeal to the Greeks to unite in defence of their freedom. [7] The Athenians had been favoured beyond all the other Greeks by Alexander and did not move. Most of the Peloponnesians, however, and some of the northern Greeks reached an agreement and signed an undertaking to go to war. According to the capacity of the individual cities they enlisted the best of their youth and enrolled as soldiers not less than twenty thousand infantry and about two thousand cavalry. [8] The Lacedaemonians had the command and led out their entire levy for the decisive battle, their king Agis having the position of commander in chief.

1 330/29 B.C.

2 Aristophon was archon at Athens from July 330 to June 329 B.C. The consuls of 332 B.C. were Cn. Domitius Calvinus and A. Cornelius Cossus Arvina (Broughton, 1.141).

3 He had been appointed by Alexander before the start of the Asian campaign (Berve, Alexanderreich, 2, no. 499). Antipater was Alexander's viceroy in Macedonia. The campaign ended with an agreement leaving Memnon in his governorship. Some years later he conducted reinforcements to Alexander and took part in his later operations in the East (Curtius 9.3.21). His revolt is not otherwise mentioned.

4 The narrative is continued from chap. 48.1 and concluded, chap. 73.5-6. Cp. Curtius 6.1; Justin 12.1.8-11.

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