When Aristophon was
archon at Athens, the consular office at Rome was assumed by Gaius Domitius and Aulus
In this year
word was brought to Greece about the battle near Arbela, and many of the cities became alarmed
at the growth of Macedonian power and decided that they should strike for their freedom while
the Persian cause was still alive.
They expected that Dareius
would help them and send them much money so that they could gather great armies of mercenaries,
while Alexander would not be able to divide his forces.
the other hand, they watched idly while the Persians were utterly defeated, the Greeks would be
isolated and never again be able to think of recovering their freedom.
There was also an upheaval in Thrace at
just this time which seemed to offer the Greeks an opportunity for freeing themselves.
Memnon, who had been designated governor-general there, had a
military force and was a man of spirit. He stirred up the tribesmen, revolted against
Alexander, quickly possessed a large army, and was openly bent on war.
Antipater was forced to mobilize his entire army and to advance through
Macedonia into Thrace to settle with him.3
While Antipater was occupied with this,4
the Lacedaemonians thought that the time had come to undertake a war
and issued an appeal to the Greeks to unite in defence of their freedom.
The Athenians had been favoured beyond all the other Greeks by Alexander
and did not move. Most of the Peloponnesians, however, and some of the northern Greeks reached
an agreement and signed an undertaking to go to war. According to the capacity of the
individual cities they enlisted the best of their youth and enrolled as soldiers not less than
twenty thousand infantry and about two thousand cavalry.
Lacedaemonians had the command and led out their entire levy for the decisive battle, their
king Agis having the position of commander in chief.