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Shortly after, the King of Persia died, having ruled forty-three years, and Ochus, who now assumed a new name, Artaxerxes, succeeded to the kingdom and ruled twenty-three years;—for since the first Artaxerxes had ruled well and had shown himself altogether peace-loving and fortunate, the Persians changed the names of those who ruled after him and prescribed that they should bear that name.1 [2] When King Tachos had returned to the army of Agesilaus,2 Nectanebos, who had collected more than a hundred thousand men, came against Tachos and challenged him to fight a battle for the kingship. Now Agesilaus, observing that the king was terrified and lacked the courage to risk a battle, bade him take heart. "For," said he, "it is not those who have the advantage of numbers who win the victory, but those who excel in valour." But since the king paid no heed to Agesilaus, he was obliged to withdraw with him to a large city. [3] The Egyptians at first started to assault them once they were shut in it, but when they had lost many men in their attacks on the walls, they then began to surround the city with a wall and a ditch. As the work was rapidly nearing completion by reason of the large number of workers, and the provisions in the city were exhausted, Tachos despaired of his safety, but Agesilaus, encouraging the men and attacking the enemy by night, unexpectedly succeeded in bringing all the men out safely. [4] And since the Egyptians had pursued close on their heels and the district was now flat, the Egyptians supposed that they had the enemy surrounded by superior numbers, and would utterly destroy them, but Agesilaus seized a position which had on each side a canal fed by the river and thus halted the enemy's attack. [5] Then having drawn up his force in conformity with the terrain and protected his army by the river channels, he joined battle. The superior numbers of the Egyptians had become useless, and the Greeks, who surpassed them in courage, slew many Egyptians and forced the rest to flee. [6] Afterwards Tachos easily recovered the Egyptian kingship,3 and Agesilaus, as the one who single-handed had restored his kingdom, was honoured with appropriate gifts. On his journey back to his native land by way of Cyrene Agesilaus died, and his body packed in honey4 was conveyed to Sparta where he received kingly burial and honour.

So far did events in Asia progress to the end of the year.

1 Since Xerxes II and Darius II intervened between Artaxerxes I (465/4-425/4, see Books 11.69.6 and 12.64.1) and Artaxerxes II (405/4-362/1, see Book 13.108.1), this statement is not quite accurate. The name Artaxerxes seems not to have been used for Arses and Darius III.

2 Diodorus's account of Agesilaus in Egypt differs considerably from the other accounts: Xen. Ages. 2.28-31; Plut. Agesilaus 36-40; and Nepos Agesilaus 8. Plutarch appears to be the most reliable. In particular Agesilaus is elsewhere reported to have changed allegiance from Tachos to Nectanebos. According to Olmstead (History of the Persian Empire, 417, 419-420) Agesilaus served in Egypt from 360 to 358.

3 Contrary to Plut. Agesilaus 38.1 and 40.1, who seems more reliable. Tachos fled, Agesilaus established Nectanebos and left with gifts from the latter.

4 Contrary to Plut. Agesilaus 40.3: ". . . enclosed his dead body in melted wax, since they had no honey . . ." (Perrin, L.C.L.). Nepos Agesilaus 8.7 agrees with Plutarch.

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