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While these things were going on, Andromachus of Tauromenium,1 who was the father of Timaeus, the author of the Histories, and distinguished for his wealth and nobility of spirit, gathered together the men who had survived the razing of Naxos by Dionysius. Having settled the hill above Naxos called Tauros and remained there a considerable time, he called it Tauromenium from his "remaining on Tauros."2 And as the city made quick progress, the inhabitants laid up great wealth, and the city, which had won considerable repute, finally in our own lifetime, after Caesar3 had expelled the inhabitants of Tauromenium from their native land, received a colony of Roman citizens. [2]

While these things were going on, the inhabitants of Euboea fell into strife among themselves, and when one party summoned the Boeotians to its assistance and the other the Athenians, war broke out over all Euboea. A good many close combats and skirmishes occurred in which sometimes the Thebans were superior and sometimes the Athenians carried off the victory. Although no important pitched battle was fought to a finish, yet when the island had been devastated by the intestinal warfare and many men had been slain on both sides, at long last admonished by the disasters, the parties came to an agreement and made peace with one another.4

Now the Boeotians returned home and remained quiet, [3] but the Athenians, who had suffered the revolt of Chios, Rhodes, and Cos and, moreover, of Byzantium, became involved in the war called the Social War which lasted three years.5 The Athenians chose Chares and Chabrias as generals and dispatched them with an army. The two generals on sailing into Chios found that allies had arrived to assist the Chians from Byzantium, Rhodes, and Cos, and also from Mausolus,6 the tyrant of Caria. They then drew up their forces and began to besiege the city both by land and by sea. Now Chares, who commanded the infantry force, advanced against the walls by land and began a struggle with the enemy who poured out on him from the city; but Chabrias, sailing up to the harbour, fought a severe naval engagement and was worsted when his ship was shattered by a ramming attack. [4] While the men on the other ships withdrew in the nick of time and saved their lives, he, choosing death with glory instead of defeat, fought on for his ship and died of his wounds.7

1 See chap. 68.8 and Plut. Timoleon 10.4.

2 For a different story see Book 14.59.2. Naxos (three miles from Tauromenium) was destroyed by Dionysius in 403 (Book 14.15.2) and its territory assigned to neighbouring Siculi (ibid. 3). These occupied the hill of Taurus to the north of Naxos and gave it the name Tauromenium. The Siculi in 394 warded off a surprise winter attack of Dionysius (Book 14.87-88). By the peace of 392 Dionysius regained Tauromenium, expelled the Siculi, and settled his mercenaries on the spot (Book 14.96.4). Probably this present settlement by Andromachus is to be regarded as a new foundation. See Wesseling's note on Book 14.59.

3 Since Tauromenium had been a stronghold of Sextus Pompey, Augustus, as a precautionary measure and because of its strong position commanding the coast road between Syracuse and Messene, expelled the former inhabitants to make room for new colonists. It may have been one of the Sicilian cities colonized by Augustus in Dio Cassius, 54.7.1 (21 B.C.)

4 Diodorus has placed the Euboean war wrongly in the archonship of Cephisodotus (358/7). The war lasted only thirty days according to Aeschin. 3.85 and occurred under Agathocles (357/6). Diocles was the Athenian commander (Dem. 21.174) and he was general in 357/6 (Dittenberger, Sylloge, 1(3). 190.23 and note 9). The treaty of peace is also dated under the archonship of Agathocles (ibid. 20 = IG, 2(2). 124). That the Social War had already begun is proved by the intentional erasure of Chabrias' (chap. 7.3) name from this inscription. He was no longer general when the treaty was signed since he had fallen at Chios. For discussion see Beloch, Griechische Geschichte (2), 3.2.258 and 3.1.238, note 2.

5 Again Diodorus is wrong in the dating of the Social War. The war opened with the attack on Chios in which Chabrias fell. For reasons given in the preceding note this must be the year 357/6. Diodorus (chap. 22.2) closes the war in the year of Elpines, 356/5, after it has lasted "four" years. Dionysius (Dion. Hal. De Lysia Iudicium 12, p. 480) placed the Social War in the years of Agathocles and Elpines (357/6 and 356/5), which seems to be the correct dating. For discussion see Beloch, Griechische Geschichte (2), 3.2.260-262.

6 Mausolus was the prime instigator of the Social War (see Dem. 15.3). Yet Byzantium, Rhodes, and Chios had joined forces previously when stirred up by Epameinondas (see Book 15.79.1).

7 See Nepos Chabrias 4; Plut. Phocion 6.1; Dem. 20.80 ff.

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    • Aeschines, Against Ctesiphon, 85
    • Demosthenes, On the Liberty of the Rhodians, 3
    • Demosthenes, Against Leptines, 80
    • Cornelius Nepos, Chabrias, 4
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