previous next

About the same time Philip, king of the Macedonians, who had been victorious over the Illyrians1 in a great battle and had made subject all the people who dwelt there as far as the lake called Lychnitis,2 now returned to Macedonia, having arranged a noteworthy peace with the Illyrians and won great acclaim among the Macedonians for the successes due to his valour. [2] Thereupon, finding that the people of Amphipolis3 were ill-disposed toward him and offered many pretexts for war, he entered upon a campaign against them with a considerable force. By bringing siege-engines against the walls4 and launching severe and continuous assaults, he succeeded in breaching a portion of the wall with his battering rams, whereupon, having entered the city through the breach and struck down many of his opponents, he obtained the mastery of the city and exiled those who were disaffected toward him, but treated the rest considerately.5 [3] Since this city was favourably situated with regard to Thrace and the neighbouring regions, it contributed greatly to the aggrandizement of Philip. Indeed he immediately reduced Pydna,6 and made an alliance with the Olynthians7 in the terms of which he agreed to take over for them Potidaea, a city which the Olynthians had set their hearts on possessing. [4] Since the Olynthians inhabited an important city and because of its huge population had great influence in war, their city was an object of contention for those who sought to extend their supremacy. For this reason the Athenians and Philip were rivals against one another for the alliance with the Olynthians. [5] However that may be, Philip, when he had forced Potidaea to surrender, led the Athenian garrison out of the city and, treating it considerately, sent it back to Athens—for he was particularly solicitous toward the people of Athens on account of the importance and repute of their city—but, having sold the inhabitants into slavery, he handed it over to the Olynthians, presenting them also at the same time with all the properties in the territory of Potidaea. [6] After this he went to the city of Crenides,8 and having increased its size with a large number of inhabitants, changed its name to Philippi, giving it his own name, and then, turning to the gold mines in its territory, which were very scanty and insignificant, he increased their output so much by his improvements that they could bring him a revenue of more than a thousand talents. [7] And because from these mines he had soon amassed a fortune, with the abundance of money he raised the Macedonian kingdom higher and higher to a greatly superior position, for with the gold coins which he struck, which came to be known from his name as Philippeioi,9 he organized a large force of mercenaries, and by using these coins for bribes induced many Greeks to become betrayers of their native lands. But concerning these matters the several events, when recorded, will explain everything in detail, and we shall now shift our account back to the events in the order of their occurrence.

1 See chap. 4.

2 Western border of Macedonia by Lyncestis and Orestis.

3 See chap. 3.3 and explanatory note; also 4.1.

4 See Wilcken, Alexander, 33.

5 A good account of Philip's seizures of Amphipolis, Pydna, Potidaea, and Crenides is found in Pickard-Cambridge, Cambridge Ancient History, 6.207-208. This account omits, as does Diodorus, Athens' declaration of war on Philip's retention of Amphipolis, which is attested by Isoc. 5.2; Aeschin. 2.21, 70, 72, Aeschin. 3.54; and IG, 2(2). 127 (πόλεμος πρὸς Φίλιππον) of the year 356. For Amphipolis see also note on chap. 3.3; Theopompus fr. 43 (Oxford); Dem. 1.8; 2.6; 7.27-28; and on the exiles also Dittenberger, Sylloge, 1(3). 194.

6 For Pydna see Dem. 20.63; Dem. 1.5.

7 For the alliance between Philip and Olynthus see Dem. 23.108; Dem. 2.14; Dem. 6.20; also Robinson, Transactions of the American Philological Association, 65 (1934), 103-122.

8 On Crenides see chap. 3.7 and note.

9 Worth about $6.25. According to Seltman, Greek Coins, 200-201, the issue of Philippi bore the name of the town ΦΙΛΙΠΠΩΝ (see Plate XLVI 7) and only after 348 began the issue of Philippeioi. See also West, "The Early Diplomacy of Philip II of Macedon Illustrated by his Coins," Numismatic Chronicle, 3 (1923), 169 ff.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 United States License.

An XML version of this text is available for download, with the additional restriction that you offer Perseus any modifications you make. Perseus provides credit for all accepted changes, storing new additions in a versioning system.

load focus Greek (1989)
hide Places (automatically extracted)

View a map of the most frequently mentioned places in this document.

Download Pleiades ancient places geospacial dataset for this text.

hide Dates (automatically extracted)
Sort dates alphabetically, as they appear on the page, by frequency
Click on a date to search for it in this document.
1934 AD (1)
1923 AD (1)
hide References (18 total)
  • Cross-references to this page (7):
    • Harper's, Aurum
    • A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities (1890), AURUM
    • Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854), CASSANDREIA
    • Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854), LYCHNI´TIS
    • Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854), PHILIPPI
    • Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854), THRA´CIA
    • Smith's Bio, Philippus Ii.
  • Cross-references in notes from this page (8):
    • Aeschines, On the Embassy, 21
    • Aeschines, Against Ctesiphon, 54
    • Demosthenes, Olynthiac 1, 5
    • Demosthenes, Olynthiac 2, 14
    • Demosthenes, Philippic 2, 20
    • Demosthenes, Against Leptines, 63
    • Demosthenes, Against Aristocrates, 108
    • Isocrates, To Philip, 2
  • Cross-references in general dictionaries to this page (3):
hide Display Preferences
Greek Display:
Arabic Display:
View by Default:
Browse Bar: