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1 This statement is not confirmed by explicit testimony. Technically, these cities, like the rest of Greece, were socii of the Romans.
2 B.C. 193
3 Livy makes no effort to report on the recent activities of Antiochus, the last mention of whom, save for the reference in the preceding chapter, was in XXXIV. lix. 8.
4 This was apparently the winter of 194-193 B.C. Raphia lay to the south-west of Gaza, on the coast between Cilicia and Egypt, but not, strictly speaking, in Phoenicia.
5 In XXXIV. lix. 8 the embassy consisted of Sulpicius, Villius and P. Aelius; the last is not mentioned in this Book. Sulpicius and Villius had commanded against Philip and were frequently employed on missions in the east.
6 Eumenes had succeeded Attalus as king of Pergamum in 197 B.C. (XXXIII. xxi; xxxiv. 10). Elaea was the port of his capital of Pergamum, which lay inland on higher ground (hence escenderunt).
7 B.C. 193
8 Frontiers were always vaguely defined in antiquity, as was inevitable when precise geographical information was scanty and maps practically unknown. The hopes of Eumenes for territorial gains after the defeat of Antiochus were realized in 188 B.C. (XXXVIII. xxxviii-xxxix).
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