officers who collected the fines and penalties (ἐπιβολὰς
imposed by magistrates and courts of justice, and payable to the state.
There seems little doubt that at Athens there were ten πράκτορες,
chosen by lot, one from each tribe. It has been
objected that an inscription of Imbros gives three
as the number (Kirchhoff, Monatsber. d. Berl. Akad.
121); but Fränkel justly points out in his note on Boeckh
ii.3 39*) that this
refers to a cleruchia,
which was Athens on a reduced
scale, with fewer officials, just as it had only three proedri. The Athenian
were not, as seems to be
implied by Pollux, 8.114, mere subordinates; for they formed an ἀρχή.
7.8; Bekker, An.
190, 26.) The magistrate who
imposed the fine, or the ἡγεμὼν
gave notice thereof in writing to the πράκτορες.
He was then said ἐπιγράφειν τὸ τίμημα τοῖς πράκτορσιν,
the debtor's name παραδοθῆναι τοῖς
If the fine or any part thereof was to go to a
temple, the like notice was sent to the ταμίαι
of the god or goddess to whom the temple belonged.
(Aesch. c. Timarch.
§ 35; Andoc. de
§ 73; [Dem.] c. Theocr.
1337.47; Dem. c. Macart.
p. 1075.71.) The name of the debtor,
with the sum which he was condemned to pay, was entered by the πράκτορες
in a tablet in the Acropolis. Hence
the debtor was said to be ἐγγεγραμμένος τῷ
or ἐν τῇ
It was the business of the πράκτορες
to demand payment of this sum, and, if they
received it, to pay it over to the ἀποδέκται,
and also to erase the name of the debtor in the
). Such erasure usually took place in
the presence of some members of the senate. An ἔνδειξις
lay against any man who made or caused to be made
a fraudulent entry or erasure of a debt. (Harpoc. and Suidas, s. v. ἀγραφίου, ἀποδέκται, ψευδεγγραφή
: Andoc. l.c.;
[Dem.] c. Aristog.
778.28; c. Theocr.
p. 1338.52.) The collectors took no steps
to enforce payment; but after the expiration of the ninth πρυτανεία
of the year [i. e. during the tenth]
(or in case of a penalty imposed on a γραφὴ
after the expiration of eleven days), if it still
remained unpaid, it was doubled, and an entry made accordingly. (Aesch.
§ 16; Dem. c. Pant.
p. 973.22; [Dem.] c. Theocr.
p. 1322.1; c.
p. 1347.7.) Thereupon immediate measures might be taken for
seizure and confiscation of the debtor's goods; but here the πράκτορες
had no further duty to perform, except
perhaps to give information of the default to the senate. There were no
doubt in many, if not most, Greek states officers bearing this title with
similar duties. We find them in inscriptions at Tenos, Sikinos, and Ios.
(C. I. G.
202, 2447; N. Rhein. Mus.
p. 294.) In the Phocian cities Medeon and Stiris the form of the word is
5.45.) (Gilbert, Staatsalt.
i.3 189.) [EPIBOLE; TIMEMA.]