PRO´STATES TOU DEMOU
PRO´STATES TOU DEMOU
) “denotes the leader of a popular party, as
opposed to an oligarchical party (see Thuc.
, 4.66, 6.35), in a form of government either entirely
democratical, or at least in which the public assembly is frequently
convoked and decides on many matters of importance.” (Grote,
Hist. of Gr.
vii. p. 304n.) Its meaning is practically
the same as δημαγωγός
δῆμος: δημαγωγός: δ προεστηκὼς
cf. Plat. Rep.
viii. p. 565 C, οὐκοῦν ἕνα τινὰ ἀεὶ ὁ δῆμος εἴωθε διαφερόντως
thus Pericles, whom Thucydides (1.127
) describes as δυνατώτατος τῶν καθ᾽
ἑαυτὸν καὶ ἄγων τὴν πολιτείαν,
is called δημαγωγὸς
by Isocrates (de
§ 126; de Permut.
234), and προστάτης τῆς πόλεως
1.2, 40). Thucydides applies
the word to Theramenes (8.89; cf. 8.65, Ἀνδροκλέα--τοῦ δήμου μάλιστα προεστῶτα,
Ἀλκιβιάδῃ ἐμποδὼν ὔντι σφίσι μὴ αὐτοῖς
τοῦ δήμου βεβαίως προεστάναι
), Xenophon to Archidemus
1.7, 2; cf. Aristoph. Frogs 417
), Aristophanes (Aristoph. Frogs 569
) to Cleon, Plutarcy
15) to Ephialtes, Aeschines (F. L.
§ 176) to Thrasybulus and Archinus, etc. And just as the person who
had placed himself at the head of the people was called προστάτης τοῦ δήμου,
the most influential
member of the senate might be said to be προστάτης
(Dem. c. Androt.
p. 591, argum.
).--In O. Müller's opinion
ii. p. 149) προστάτης
was also the title of a particular magistracy which
existed in all the Dorian states in which the government was democratical,
and G. C. Müller (de Corcyr. Rep.
p. 49 ff.)
considers as public officers the προστάται τοῦ
in Corcyra (Thuc. 3.70
Megara (Thuc. 4.66
), in Elis (Xen. Hell. 3.2
), in Mantineia (ibid.
5.2, 3), in Argos and Heraclea (Aen. Pol.
11), in Syracuse (Thuc.
). Wachsmuth (Hell. Altert.
1.2, p. 435 ff.),
on the other hand, thinks that the term is a general one, sometimes implying
a particular office and sometimes not, but that even in the former case the
title of the magistrate was not δήμου
but something else, such e. g. as δημιουργός,
which is lost to us in the general
appellation. Wachsmuth is no doubt right in denying that the term always
denoted a particular officer; thus Athenagoras was evidently not one, as the
connexion shows: ἐν τῷ παρόντι πιθανώτατος τοῖς
); but he goes
too far in saying that προστάτης τοῦ
was not the official title where a magistrate was denoted.
That this was the case is evident from inscriptions; thus in a Tegean decree
conferring proxenia there occur προστάται τοῦ
three in number, στραταγοί
and ἱερεὺς τῆς
(Dittenberger, Syll. I. Gr.
No. 317), and
Sauppe (Comm. de Tit. Tegeat.
p. 4) expresses an opinion that
in Argos too it was the title of a magistrate. Προστάτης
was the official title of functionaries of the
most different kinds. The Chaonians, whom Herodotus (2.56
) considers as Hellenic,
whilst Thucydides (2.80
) calls them βάρβαροι,
had in the time of the Peloponnesian
war two presidents (ὧν ἡγοῦντο ἐπ̓ ἐπτησίῳ
προστασίᾳ ἐκ τοῦ ἀρχικοῦ γένους Φ. καὶ
N., Thuc. l.c.
), whilst other tribes of Epirus, such as the
Molossians, had kings; when afterwards these tribes were united probably by
Tharypas ( “primus leges et senatum annuosque magistratus et rei
publicae formam composuit,”
; cf. Plut. Pyrrh. 1
were the annual magistrates of the single tribes
under the king, e. g. of the Molossians: ἐπὶ
προστάτα Λευχάρου . . . . ἔδοξε τοῖς Μολοσσοῖς
(Dittenberger, No. 322); ἐπὶ βασιλέος Νεοπτολέμου
Ἀλεξάνδρου, ἐπὶ προστάτα Δέρκα Μολοσσῶν
No. 324), and these προστάται
continued even after the abolition of royalty, e.
g. στραταγοῦντος Ἀπειρωτᾶν Λυσυνία Καρώπου
προσστατεύοντος Μολοσσῶν Ἐχελάου Παρώρου
No. 442; cf. No. 443).--The symmories of Teos
(which were analogous rather to the gentes
to the phratries of Athens, as Grote suggests, Hist. of Gr.
iii. p. 186) had each four προστάται,
held office one year (C. I. G.
No. 306).--In some states the
seem to have been a kind of
executive of the βουλή,
analogous to the
who drew up the
decrees: thus in Calymna the decrees of politeia are usually headed,
ἔδοξε τᾷ βουλᾷ καὶ τῷ δήμῳ, γνώμα
(Brit. Mus. Gk. Inscr.
ii. No. 232,
233, 235, etc.); a decree of the people of Cnidus which appears to relate to
the purification of a temple of Dionysus begins, ἔδοξε Κνιδίοι[ς γν]ώμα προστατ[ᾶν]
Halicarn., Cnid. and Branch.,
p. 753, No. 36); γνώμα προστατᾶν
stands in the heading of a
decree of Cos about the public proclamation of a crown, etc. (Cauer,2 No. 165). In Calymna the προστάται
were charged with inscribing decrees and setting
them up (Brit. Mus. Inscr.
ii. No. 242); they had to assign
by lot the new citizens to the phylae and demi (ibid.
No. 242, 253), and kept the public seal (ibid.
No. 299). just as the ἐπιστάτης τῶν
at Athens. In the decree of Iulis concerning the
export of red ochre, denunciations of those contravening were to be made to
(C. I. A.
No. 546=Hicks, Manual,
No. 108), just as the impeachment
against the corn-dealers was in the first instance laid before the πρυτάνεις
at Athens (Lys. adv.
). In other states, however, the προστάται
had apparently different functions. Thus in Iasus,
were the executive of the
senate, they were in Hicks' opinion “a board concerned with the
admission of strangers to the citizenship, and the keeping of a register
of citizens” (Journ. Hell. Soc.
viii. p. 107).
Hence the προστάται
were enjoined in a
decree (γνώμη πρυτανέων
) to bring a
proposal before the βουλὴ
for the admission
of certain strangers of Priene to citizenship (Brit. Mus.
3.1, No. 420; cf. the Iasian decree in Journ. Hell. Soc.
viii. p. 112, where the προστάται
together propose the grant of
honours to Teleutias), and were charged in another decree (C. I.
No. 2676) to select the place where a decree of politeia should
be inscribed (cf. C. I. G.
No. 98, Amphipolis); hence they had to seal the boxes
supplied to the six νεωποῖαι
(one from each
tribe), who collected the vouchers of those who, attended the popular
assembly, the προστάται
at the close of the
meeting examining the vouchers and authorising the payment of the ecclesiasticon.
In a Thasian decree, too, a προστάτης
is mentioned, who is evidently
concerned with the restoration of outlawed members of the oligarchical party
to civic rights upon their return (Journ. Hell. Soc.
401 ff.), and, Newton (Brit. Mus.
ii. p. 114) sees in the
προστάται τοὶ σὺν Χαρίνῳ
Rhodian inscription a board “whose function was to take care of
strangers and of those who had no civic rights,” and similarly
explains the fifteen προστάται
epigram on the base of a statue of Hermes found by him at Cnidus
(Halicavn., Cnid. and Branch.
, p. 749, No. 31), though
the Cnidian inscription No. 36 (referred to above) would rather point to
having had the [p. 2.506]
function of the Athenian πρυτάνεις.
--A decree of Dyme conferring citizenship mentions
and a γραμματιστὰς
(Dittenberger, No. 316=Cauer,2 No. 267): here προστάτας
denote the president of the popular assembly, just as two προστατεύοντες τῆς ἐκκλησίας
occur in an
inscription from Hypata (Rhangabé, No. 748). Two προστάται
presided over the council (συνέδριον
) of the Aetolian league
(Rhangabé, No. 692=Cauer,2 No. 239 sub fin.
). (Gilbert, Staatsalterth.
. In the Ἀθ. πολ.
the term προστάτης τοῦ δήμου
) is constantly used in the sense of “leader of
the popular party” : e. g. Solon (πρῶτος
ἐγέν[ετο τοῦ δήμου] προστάτης,
cc. 2, 28), Pisistratus
100.28), Cleisthenes (cc.
21, 28), Xanthippus, Themistoles and Aristides (cc. 23, 28), Ephialtes (cc.
25, 28), Pericles, Cleon, Cleophon. These are opposed to the leaders for the
time being of the other party (προστ. τῶν ἑτέρων,
τῶν εὐπόρων, τῶν γνωρίμων.
Hipparchus, the son of
Charmus, is called ἡγεμὼν καὶ προστάτης
of the φίλοι τῶν τυράννων,