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PRO´STATES TOU DEMOU (προστάτης τοῦ δήμου) “denotes the leader of a popular party, as opposed to an oligarchical party (see Thuc. 3.70 [82], 4.66, 6.35), in a form of government either entirely democratical, or at least in which the public assembly is frequently convoked and decides on many matters of importance.” (Grote, Hist. of Gr. vii. p. 304n.) Its meaning is practically the same as δημαγωγός (Stephan. Byz. δῆμος: δημαγωγός: δ προεστηκὼς δήμου: cf. Plat. Rep. viii. p. 565 C, οὐκοῦν ἕνα τινὰ ἀεὶ δῆμος εἴωθε διαφερόντως [p. 2.505]προίστασθαι ἑαυτοῦ: thus Pericles, whom Thucydides (1.127) describes as δυνατώτατος τῶν καθ᾽ ἑαυτὸν καὶ ἄγων τὴν πολιτείαν, is called δημαγωγὸς by Isocrates (de Pace, § 126; de Permut. § 234), and προστάτης τῆς πόλεως by Xenophon (Memor. 1.2, 40). Thucydides applies the word to Theramenes (8.89; cf. 8.65, Ἀνδροκλέα--τοῦ δήμου μάλιστα προεστῶτα, and 6.28, Ἀλκιβιάδῃ ἐμποδὼν ὔντι σφίσι μὴ αὐτοῖς τοῦ δήμου βεβαίως προεστάναι), Xenophon to Archidemus (Hellen. 1.7, 2; cf. Aristoph. Frogs 417), Aristophanes (Aristoph. Frogs 569) to Cleon, Plutarcy (Cim. 15) to Ephialtes, Aeschines (F. L. § 176) to Thrasybulus and Archinus, etc. And just as the person who had placed himself at the head of the people was called προστάτης τοῦ δήμου, the most influential member of the senate might be said to be προστάτης τῆς βουλῆς (Dem. c. Androt. p. 591, argum.).--In O. Müller's opinion (Dorians, ii. p. 149) προστάτης was also the title of a particular magistracy which existed in all the Dorian states in which the government was democratical, and G. C. Müller (de Corcyr. Rep. p. 49 ff.) considers as public officers the προστάται τοῦ δήμου in Corcyra (Thuc. 3.70, 75; 4.46), in Megara (Thuc. 4.66), in Elis (Xen. Hell. 3.2, 27, 30), in Mantineia (ibid. 5.2, 3), in Argos and Heraclea (Aen. Pol. 11), in Syracuse (Thuc. 6.35). Wachsmuth (Hell. Altert. 1.2, p. 435 ff.), on the other hand, thinks that the term is a general one, sometimes implying a particular office and sometimes not, but that even in the former case the title of the magistrate was not δήμου προστάτης, but something else, such e. g. as δημιουργός, which is lost to us in the general appellation. Wachsmuth is no doubt right in denying that the term always denoted a particular officer; thus Athenagoras was evidently not one, as the connexion shows: ἐν τῷ παρόντι πιθανώτατος τοῖς πολλοῖς (Thuc. 6.35); but he goes too far in saying that προστάτης τοῦ δήμου was not the official title where a magistrate was denoted. That this was the case is evident from inscriptions; thus in a Tegean decree conferring proxenia there occur προστάται τοῦ δάμον, three in number, στραταγοί (eleven), ῾λππαρχος, γραμματεύς, and ἱερεὺς τῆς Ἀθηνᾶς (Dittenberger, Syll. I. Gr. No. 317), and Sauppe (Comm. de Tit. Tegeat. p. 4) expresses an opinion that in Argos too it was the title of a magistrate. Προστάτης was the official title of functionaries of the most different kinds. The Chaonians, whom Herodotus (2.56, 5.127) considers as Hellenic, whilst Thucydides (2.80) calls them βάρβαροι, had in the time of the Peloponnesian war two presidents (ὧν ἡγοῦντο ἐπ̓ ἐπτησίῳ προστασίᾳ ἐκ τοῦ ἀρχικοῦ γένους Φ. καὶ N., Thuc. l.c.), whilst other tribes of Epirus, such as the Molossians, had kings; when afterwards these tribes were united probably by Tharypas ( “primus leges et senatum annuosque magistratus et rei publicae formam composuit,” Just. 17, 3; cf. Plut. Pyrrh. 1), προστάται were the annual magistrates of the single tribes under the king, e. g. of the Molossians: ἐπὶ προστάτα Λευχάρου . . . . ἔδοξε τοῖς Μολοσσοῖς (Dittenberger, No. 322); ἐπὶ βασιλέος Νεοπτολέμου Ἀλεξάνδρου, ἐπὶ προστάτα Δέρκα Μολοσσῶν (l.c. No. 324), and these προστάται continued even after the abolition of royalty, e. g. στραταγοῦντος Ἀπειρωτᾶν Λυσυνία Καρώπου προσστατεύοντος Μολοσσῶν Ἐχελάου Παρώρου (l.c. No. 442; cf. No. 443).--The symmories of Teos (which were analogous rather to the gentes than to the phratries of Athens, as Grote suggests, Hist. of Gr. iii. p. 186) had each four προστάται, who held office one year (C. I. G. No. 306).--In some states the προστάται seem to have been a kind of executive of the βουλή, analogous to the Athenian πρυτάνεις, who drew up the decrees: thus in Calymna the decrees of politeia are usually headed, ἔδοξε τᾷ βουλᾷ καὶ τῷ δήμῳ, γνώμα προστατᾶν (Brit. Mus. Gk. Inscr. ii. No. 232, 233, 235, etc.); a decree of the people of Cnidus which appears to relate to the purification of a temple of Dionysus begins, ἔδοξε Κνιδίοι[ς γν]ώμα προστατ[ᾶν] (Newton, Halicarn., Cnid. and Branch., p. 753, No. 36); γνώμα προστατᾶν stands in the heading of a decree of Cos about the public proclamation of a crown, etc. (Cauer,2 No. 165). In Calymna the προστάται were charged with inscribing decrees and setting them up (Brit. Mus. Inscr. ii. No. 242); they had to assign by lot the new citizens to the phylae and demi (ibid. No. 242, 253), and kept the public seal (ibid. No. 299). just as the ἐπιστάτης τῶν πρυτανέων at Athens. In the decree of Iulis concerning the export of red ochre, denunciations of those contravening were to be made to the προστάται (C. I. A. ii. No. 546=Hicks, Manual, No. 108), just as the impeachment against the corn-dealers was in the first instance laid before the πρυτάνεις at Athens (Lys. adv. Frument.). In other states, however, the προστάται had apparently different functions. Thus in Iasus, where πρυτάνεις were the executive of the senate, they were in Hicks' opinion “a board concerned with the admission of strangers to the citizenship, and the keeping of a register of citizens” (Journ. Hell. Soc. viii. p. 107). Hence the προστάται were enjoined in a decree (γνώμη πρυτανέων) to bring a proposal before the βουλὴ for the admission of certain strangers of Priene to citizenship (Brit. Mus. 3.1, No. 420; cf. the Iasian decree in Journ. Hell. Soc. viii. p. 112, where the προστάται and στρατηγοὶ together propose the grant of honours to Teleutias), and were charged in another decree (C. I. G. No. 2676) to select the place where a decree of politeia should be inscribed (cf. C. I. G. No. 2008=Hicks, Manual, No. 98, Amphipolis); hence they had to seal the boxes supplied to the six νεωποῖαι (one from each tribe), who collected the vouchers of those who, attended the popular assembly, the προστάται at the close of the meeting examining the vouchers and authorising the payment of the ecclesiasticon. In a Thasian decree, too, a προστάτης is mentioned, who is evidently concerned with the restoration of outlawed members of the oligarchical party to civic rights upon their return (Journ. Hell. Soc. viii. p. 401 ff.), and, Newton (Brit. Mus. ii. p. 114) sees in the προστάται τοὶ σὺν Χαρίνῳ in a Rhodian inscription a board “whose function was to take care of strangers and of those who had no civic rights,” and similarly explains the fifteen προστάται in the epigram on the base of a statue of Hermes found by him at Cnidus (Halicavn., Cnid. and Branch., p. 749, No. 31), though the Cnidian inscription No. 36 (referred to above) would rather point to προστάται having had the [p. 2.506]function of the Athenian πρυτάνεις.--A decree of Dyme conferring citizenship mentions a βούλαρχος, a προστάτας, and a γραμματιστὰς δαμοσιοφυλάκων (Dittenberger, No. 316=Cauer,2 No. 267): here προστάτας seems to denote the president of the popular assembly, just as two προστατεύοντες τῆς ἐκκλησίας occur in an inscription from Hypata (Rhangabé, No. 748). Two προστάται presided over the council (συνέδριον) of the Aetolian league (Rhangabé, No. 692=Cauer,2 No. 239 sub fin.). (Gilbert, Staatsalterth. ii. passim.) [H.H]

(Appendix). In the Ἀθ. πολ. the term προστάτης τοῦ δήμου (or τοῦ πλήθους) is constantly used in the sense of “leader of the popular party” : e. g. Solon (πρῶτος ἐγέν[ετο τοῦ δήμου] προστάτης, cc. 2, 28), Pisistratus (δεύτερος, 100.28), Cleisthenes (cc. 21, 28), Xanthippus, Themistoles and Aristides (cc. 23, 28), Ephialtes (cc. 25, 28), Pericles, Cleon, Cleophon. These are opposed to the leaders for the time being of the other party (προστ. τῶν ἑτέρων, τῶν εὐπόρων, τῶν γνωρίμων. Hipparchus, the son of Charmus, is called ἡγεμὼν καὶ προστάτης of the φίλοι τῶν τυράννων, 100.22).

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