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PYDNA (Πύδνα, Scyl. p. 26; Scymn. Ch. 626; Ptol. 3.13.15; Steph. B. sub voce Plin. Nat. 4.17), a town which originally stood on the coast of Pieria, in the Thermaic gulf. Themistocles was conducted by two Macedonian guides across the mountains, and found a merchant ship about to sail for Asia. (Thuc. 2.137.) Pydna was blockaded by the Athenians, who, after prosecuting the siege in vain, concluded a convention with Perdiccas. (Thuc. 1.61.) It was taken B.C. 411 by Archelaus, who removed its site 20 stadia from the sea. (Diod. 13.49.) Afterwards it was gained for Athens by Timotheus; but in the two first years of the disastrous Social War (358--356), Pydna, about the exchange of which for Amphipolis there had been a secret negotiation, was betrayed to Philip by a party of traitors in the town. (Demosth. adv. Leptinem, p. 476.71. Olynth. i. p. 10.5, Olynth. ii. p. 19.6; Ulpian, ad loc.; Theopompus, Fr. 189, ed Didot.) Several Athenian citizens were taken in Pydna, and sold into slavery, whom Demosthenes ransomed from his own funds. (Plut. Vit. X. Orator. p. 851, vol. ix. p. 381, ed. Reiske.) Towards the close of the year B.C. 316, Olympias retired to Pydna, where she was besieged by Cassander, and taken prisoner by him. (Diod. 19.49; Polyaen. 4.11.3.) In the spring of B.C. 169, Perseus abandoning Dium, retreated before the consul Q. Marcius Philippus to Pydna. (Liv. 44.6.) After again occupying the strong line of the Enipeus, Perseus, in consequence of the dexterous flank movement of P. Scipio Nasica, was compelled to fall back upon Pydna. On the 22nd of June, B.C. 168 (an eclipse fixes the date, Clinton, F. H. vol. iii. p. 82), the fate of the Macedonian monarchy was decided in a plain near the town, which was traversed by a small river, and bordered by heights affording a convenient retreat and shelter to the light infantry, while the plain alone contained the level ground necessary for the phalanx. (Liv. 44.32-46; Plut. Aemil. 13--23.) The Epitomiser of Strabo and a Scholiast upon Demosthenes (Olynth. i. p. 10) assert that the Κίτρος of their time was the same place as Pydna; but their authority is of no great weight, and Colonel Leake (Northern Greece, vol. iii. pp. 429--435) has shown that the ancient, site is better represented by Ayán, where there are Hellenic remains, and, on the slope towards the sea, two “tumuli,” probably monuments of the battle. Kítro, it may be supposed, rose upon the decay of Pydna and Methone, between which it lies. For autonomous coins of Pydna, see Eckhel. vol. ii. p. 76.


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