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ANDROS One of the Cyclades, Greece.

The farthest N of these islands, lying between Euboia and Tenos. Andros, son of Eurymachos or Anios, gave his name to it; according to another tradition, the name is associated with Andros, to whom Radamanthys gave the island (Diod. Sic. 5.79; Paus. 10.13.3). The Andrians were Ionian descendants. Though dependent on Eretria in the 8th c. B.C., Andros prospered by the next century, and founded numerous colonies. It submitted to Persia in 490, received an Athenian cleruchy in 450-440, and later entered the second Athenian League (378-377). In 200 B.C. it was captured by Pergamene and Roman forces, and the cities mercilessly looted.

Major sites lie in the W part of the island. The ancient center of Andros is located at Palaiopolis, in the middle of the W coast, where there is an acropolis with vestiges of walls on the N side. Sections of walls and one gate are preserved at several points around the city. Ruins of a stoa dated in the 3d or 2d c. B.C. are preserved in the agora. In the city there were a famous Temple of Dionysos, a Fountain of Zeus (Plin. HN 2.231; Paus. 6.26.2; Philostr. Imag. 1.25) and Temples of Apollo, Hestia, and Athena Ταυροπόλς (Suidas, s.v.Ταυροπόλς). Further to the N is the harbor Γαύπειον (Xen. Hell. 1.4.22; Diod. Sic. 13.69). To the NE is Haghios Petros, a village where a Hellenistic tower survives. Ancient iron mines have been reported in the area. Quarries of marble existed in the N part of the island. The important site of Geometric Zagora lies to the SE of Palaiopolis. The settlement, which flourished during the late 8th c. B.C. was fortified with a strong wall. One gate has been found on the S side; the N side is still unexcavated. The town is represented by a complex of rooms and courts. At a central position is a temple (10 x 8 m) consisting of a closed prodomos and an almost square cella which contained a stone altar (?). The temple is almost entirely built of schist, and probably had a flat roof. The plan is reminiscent of the temples at Xombourgo on Tenos and Emporio on Chios. There is an archaeological collection in Andros with sculptures of archaic, Classical, and Hellenistic periods and Geometric ceramic.


BIBLIOGRAPHY

L. Ross, Reisen auf den griechischen Inseln des Aegaeischen meeres II (1843) 12ff; Hirschfeld, RE 12 (1894) 2169-71 s.v. Andros; T. Saucius, Andros (1914); B. D. Meritt, ATL I (1939) 469; A. Cambitoglou, Praktika (1967) 103-11; M. Ervin, AJA 72 (1968) 381-82; A. Cambitoglou, Praktika (1969) 134-38; id., Zagora I (1971)MP.

D. SCHILARDI

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