previous next

IUPPITER STATOR, AEDES

(templum, ἱεπόϝ̓:

a temple vowed, according to tradition (BC 1917, 79-84), by Romulus at the critical moment in the battle between the Romans and the Sabines when the former had been driven across the forum valley to the porta Mugonia (Liv. i. 12. 3-6; ps. Cic. orat. pr. quam in exilium iret 24; Ov. Fast. vi. 794; Dionys. ii. 50; Flor. i. I. 13; de vir. ill. 2. 8). The epithet stator appears in Greek as ὀπθώσιος (Dionys.) and στήσιος (App. Plut.). This temple was never built, but in 294 B.C. the consul, M. Atilius Regulus, made a similar vow under similar circumstances in a battle with the Samnites, and erected the temple immediately afterwards (Liv. x. 36. II, 37. 15). Livy explains that no actual building had been put up by Romulus, but fanum tantum, id est locus templo effatus-an attempt to reconcile fact with what had evidently become the popular tradition (Cic. Cat. i. 33 ; ps. Cic. loc. cit.). Its site is variously indicated-in Palatii radice, ps. Cic.; ante Palatini ora iugi, Ov.; ad veterem portam Palatii, Liv.; ἐν ἀρχῇ τῆς ἱερᾶς ὁδοῦ παρὰ ταῖς καλουμέναις Μουγωνίσι πύλαις, Dionys.; ἐν αρχῇ τῆς ἱερᾶς ὁδοῦ πρὸς τὸ Παλάτιον ἀνιότων , Plut. Cic. 16; cf. Ov. Trist. iii. I. 32; Liv. i. 41. 4; Plin. NH xxxiv. 29; App. BC ii. ii), and Not. places it in Region IV. It is represented on the relief of the Haterii (Mon. d. Inst. v. 7) as hexastyle, of the Corinthian order, and facing the clivus Palatinus.

Cicero called the senate together in this temple (Cic. Cat. ii. 12 ; ps. Cic. loc. cit.; Plut. Cic. 16), which was probably not unusual; and in it was kept what was evidently a bit of liturgy composed by Livius Andronicus (Liv. xxvii. 37. 7). The day of dedication is given by Ovid (Fast. vi. 793) as 27th January, but this may perhaps be that of a later restoration, and not of Regulus' temple (WR 122-123). In fact, we learn from Fast. Ant. ap. NS 1921, I I, that either this temple or that in the porticus Metelli was dedicated on 5th September; and, as Hemer. Urb. (cited below) associates that temple with that of luno Regina, the reference in Fast. Ant. may be taken to be to the temple now under discussion. Two inscriptions of the later empire (CL vi. 434, 435) probably belong to this temple, and it is mentioned in the fourth century (Not.).

Just east of the arch of Titus, a site corresponding with the literary references, are ruins consisting of a large rectangular platform of concrete, on which are some enormous blocks of peperino and travertine (Hermes, 1885, 412). On this foundation the mediaeval turris Cartularia was built (for the explanation of this name, see Rend. dei Lincei 1912, 767-772; AJA 1913, 569),1 which was not torn down until 1829. This foundation has generally been identified as that of the temple of Iuppiter Stator of the Flavian period (LR 200; HC 250-252; CR 1905, 75; BC 1903, 18; 1914, 93; 1917, 79-84; TF 89; DR 178-182; RE Suppl. iv. 480, 481). Some tufa walls, recently excavated close to the north- east side of the arch and beneath its foundations, may have belonged to the temple at an earlier date when its position was slightly different (YW 1908, 23; CR 1909, 61), but the supposition is very doubtful. Others have sought it on the area Palatina, but wrongly (HJ 22).

For a republican inscription on some blocks of tufa there (not on our site), see CIL i'. 1009=vi. 29842 (cf. 36615). It bears the names of two Greek artificers Philocrates and Diodes. See HJ 20-23; Rosch. ii. 682-684.

1 In brief, it derived its name not from the fact that it ever contained the papal archives, but from its proximity to the building in which they were kept, which was itself situated on the Palatine. Cf. also Roma vi. (1928) 97, 98.

hide Dates (automatically extracted)
Sort dates alphabetically, as they appear on the page, by frequency
Click on a date to search for it in this document.
294 BC (1)
hide Display Preferences
Greek Display:
Arabic Display:
View by Default:
Browse Bar: