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* a gate through which a Roman general, who was celebrating a triumph, passed at the beginning of his march. It is mentioned in five passages (Cic. in Pis. 55; Tac. Ann. i. 8; Cass. Dio Ivi. 42; Suet. Aug. 100; Joseph. Bell. Iud. vii. 5. 4), but only the last contains any topographical indications. These seem to point to a location in the campus Martius, not far from the circus Flaminius and the villa Publica. Four views have been held as to the character of this gate and its site: (I) that it was a gate in the Servian wall between the porta Flumentana and the porta Carmentalis (Nibby, Mura di Roma 1821, 132-134; Piale, Delle porte del monte Aventino e delle altre occidentali di Roma, 1834, 19-27; LR 64); (2) that the circus Maximus abutted on the city wall and that the porta Triumphalis was its principal entrance at this point (Bunsen, Beschreibung der Stadt Rom i. 630-633; ii.I. 439-441; M61. 1909, 135-140); (3) that it was merely a name given to any gate through which the victorious general entered the city, or to a temporary arch erected at any point along the line of march (Morpurgo, BC 1908, 107-150); (4) that it was an arch or gate standing by itself in the campus Martius, according to the indications of Josephus noted above (Becker, Topogr. 149-154; HJ 495; Richter 124). This is the generally accepted explanation at present. For a full discussion and citation of literature, see Morpurgo op. cit.; v. Domaszewski, AR 1909, 70, 73, who thinks the porta Triumphalis was built to take the place in the triumph which previously was held by the porta Carmentalis; and Makin in JRS 1921, 25-36.

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