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sŭpĕro , āvi, ātum, 1, v. n. and
I.a. [id.].
I. Neutr., to go over, to rise above, overtop, surmount.
A. Lit. (very rare; syn. transcendo): maximo saltu superabit gravidus armatis equus, surmounted, leaped the wall, Enn. ap. Macr. S. 6, 2 (Trag. v. 97 Vahl.): “sol superabat ex mari,Plaut. Stich. 2, 2, 41: “ripis superat mihi atque abundat pectus laetitia meum,id. ib. 2, 1, 6: “jugo superans,passing over the summit, Verg. A. 11, 514: “superat agger ad auras,Stat. Th. 4, 458: “(angues) superant capite et cervicibus altis,Verg. A. 2, 219. —
B. Trop. (freq. and class.).
2. To exceed, be in excess, be superfluous; to be abundant, to abound (syn. supersum): “in quo et deesse aliquam partem et superare mendosum est,Cic. de Or. 2, 19, 83: “pecunia superabat? at egebas,id. Or. 67, 224: “uter igitur est divitior? cui deest an cui superat?id. Par. 6, 3, 49: “quis tolerare potest, illis divitias superare, nobis rem familiarem etiam ad necessaria deesse?Sall. C. 20, 11: “cui quamquam virtus, gloria ... superabant,id. J. 64, 1: “quae Jugurthae fesso superaverant,had been too much for, id. ib. 70, 2: “de eo quod ipsis superat,Cic. Fin. 5, 15, 42: “Quinto delegabo, si quid aeri meo alieno superabit et emptionibus,id. Att. 13, 46, 3: “superabat umor in arvis,Lucr. 5, 804: “superante multitudine,Liv. 3, 5: “cum otium superat,id. 3, 17: “num tibi superat superbia?Plaut. Am. 2, 2, 86: “gentis superant tibi laudes,Tib. 4, 1, 28: “dum superat gregibus juventas,Verg. G. 3, 63: “si superant fetus,id. ib. 1, 189: quam facile tunc sit omnia impedire et quam hoc Caesari superet, non te fallit, perh. how exceedingly easy it would have been, Cael. ap. Cic. Fam. 8, 5, 3 dub.—
II. Act., to go or pass over, rise above; to mount, ascend; to surmount, overtop.
A. Lit.
1. In gen.: in altisono Caeli clipeo temo superat Stellas, Enn. ap. Varr. L. L. 7, § 73 Müll. (Vahl. Enn. p. 119, om. stellas): “tempestas summas ripas fluminis superavit,Caes. B. C. 1, 48: “ventosum aequor,Ov. Ib. 591: “fluvium,Luc. 4, 150: “mare,Sen. Oet. 128: “pedibus salsas lacunas,Lucr. 3, 1031: “munitiones,Liv. 5, 8, 10: “quas (Alpes) nullā dum viā superatas,id. 5, 34, 6; 21, 26, 4; 21, 30, 5; 21, 38, 1; “23, 45, 3: Tauro monte superato,id. 35, 13, 4: “montes,Verg. G. 3, 270: “Alpes cursu,Luc. 1, 183: “immensa montium juga,Plin. Pan. 81, 1: “Caucasum,Curt. 7, 3, 22: “hoc jugum,Verg. A. 6, 676: “fossas,id. ib. 9, 314: “summi fastigia tecti Ascensu,id. ib. 2, 303; cf.: “caprae gravido superant vix ubere limen,id. G. 3, 317: “retia saltu (vulpes),Ov. M. 7, 767: “tantum itineris,to traverse, pass over, Tac. Agr. 33: regionem castrorum, to go past or beyond, Caes. B. C. 1, 69; cf. Cic. Tusc. 1, 19, 43: “insidias circa ipsum iter locatas,Liv. 2, 50, 6: “collocatur in eo turris tabulatorum quae superaret fontis fastigium,but so as to overtop, command, Hirt. B. G. 8, 41: “superat (Parnassus) cacumine nubes,Ov. M. 1, 317.—
2. In partic.
a. Naut. t. t., to sail by or past a place, a promontory, etc.; to double or weather a point, etc.; promontorium, Lucil. ap. Serv. Verg. A. 1, 244; Auct. B. Afr. 62, 3; Liv. 26, 26, 1; 30, 25, 6; 31, 23, 3; Tac. A. 15, 46 et saep.: “Euboeam,Nep. Them. 3, 3: “cursu Isthmon,Ov. Tr. 1, 11, 5: “intima Regna Liburnorum et fontem Timavi,Verg. A. 1, 244 Serv.— Poet., transf.: musarum scopulos, Enn. ap. Cic. Brut. 19, 76 (Ann. v. 223 Vahl.).—
b. To rise above, exceed in height: “ut alibi umbilico tenus aqua esset, alibi genua vix superaret,Liv. 36, 45, 9; cf.: posterior partes superat mensura priores, i. e. exceeds in size, Ov. M. 15, 378.—
B. Trop., to surpass, excel, exceed, outdo, outstrip in any quality, in value, etc.
b. Transf., in gen.: quem (C. Curium) nemo ferro potuit superare nec auro, Enn. ap. Cic. Rep. 3, 3, 6 (Ann. v. 220 Vahl.): “in quo (genere officii) etiam si multi mecum contendent, omnes facile superabo,Cic. Fam. 5, 8, 4: “si erum videt superare amorem,Plaut. Aul. 4, 1, 7: “hanc (orationem) assidua ac diligens scriptura superabit,Cic. de Or. 1, 33, 150: si meam spem vis improborum fefellerit atque superaverit, id. Cat. 4, 11, 23: “injurias fortunae facile veterum philosophorum praeceptis superabat,id. Fin. 4, 7, 17: “pareatur necessitati, quam ne dii quidem superant,which even the gods are not above, not superior to, Liv. 9, 4, 16: “casus omnes,Verg. A. 11, 244: “superanda omnis fortuna ferendo est,id. ib. 5, 710: “labores,id. ib. 3, 368: “difficultates omnes,Vell. 2, 120, 4: “cum incedendi nimietate jam superarer,Amm. 19, 8, 6.—Hence, sŭpĕrans , antis, P. a. *
A. Rising high, prominent, high, lofty: “mons superantissimus,Sol. 2 med.—*
B. Prevailing, predominant: “superantior ignis,Lucr. 5, 394.
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