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5. ὅπως βέλτιστος: so BT: there is no reason for inserting ὡς after ὅπως with Kroschel and Turner: βέλτιστος does not mean better than all others, but very good.

παρ᾽ ἕκαστον κτλ. ‘Est eo ipso tempore quo quidque vel fit vel dicitur’ (Heindorf).

7. τὸ μὲν δίκαιον κτλ. Sauppe well quotes Ter. Ad. 417-18 where a father νουθετεῖ his son ‘Hoc facito—Hoc fugito—Hoc laudi est—Hoc vitio datur’. Cf. Hor. Sat. I. 4. 105 ff.

9. τὰ μὲν ποίει, τὰ δὲ μὴ ποίει: τὰ μὲν is not δίκαιον, καλόν, ὅσιον, but quite general: ‘this do, that do not’. The τάδε μὲντάδε δέ of T is unnecessary; cf. τὸ μὲντὸ δέ in l. 7. The symmetry of the sentence is worth noting (a, b, b, a): first τὸ μὲντὸ δέ, next τόδε μὲντόδε δέ twice, last τὰ μὲντὰ δέ, the end recalling the beginning. Cf. note on καὶ κακὸν καὶ αἰσχρόν in Crito, 49B.

ἐὰν μὲν ἑκὼν πείθηται: without apodosis: see Goodwin, Moods and Tenses (1889), p. 179. This idiom occurs more than once in Homer: it is perhaps a remnant of the days when the conditional particles introduced a main sentence: certainly the Greeks were not conscious of any such ellipse as εὖ ἕξει.

10. ὥσπερ ξύλον διαστρεφόμενον. ξύλον is ‘a piece of wood’, not necessarily a dead log, as appears from Hdt. III. 47 εἰρίοισι ἀπὸ ξύλου (of the cotton tree) and other exx. in L. and S. The growing child is compared to a tree growing up and becoming crooked (note the present διαστρεφόμενονκαμπτόμενον). Plato frequently applies the metaphors ‘crooked’, ‘warped’ and the like to victims of vice and vicious education: cf. Gorg. 525A πάντα σκολιὰ ὑπὸ ψεύδους καὶ ἀλαζονείας; Theaet. 173A σμικροὶ δὲ καὶ οὐκ ὀρθοὶ τὰς ψυχάς.

11. εὐθύνουσινπληγαῖς. Cf. Arist. Ἀθην. πολιτ. ch. 8 τοὺς ἁμαρτάνοντας ηὔθυνεν κυρία οὖσα τοῦ ζημιοῦν καὶ κολάζειν (of the Areopagitic council). For εὐθύνειν (here passing into the meaning of ‘chastise’) see note on 324Aοὐδεὶς γὰρ κολάζει. To illustrate πληγαῖς Sauppe quotes the well-known line of Menander μὴ δαρεὶς ἄνθρωπος οὐ παιδεύεται.

12. εἰς διδασκάλων πέμποντες. It appears from 326Cthat there was no regular age for going to school; the parents decided in each case. Plato ordains (Laws, VII. 809E) that children shall learn γράμματα (i.e. reading and writing, ibid. 810B) from 10 to 13, and the lyre from 13 to 16.

πολὺ μᾶλλονεὐκοσμίας. Protagoras' description of the aim of Athenian education agrees with the account of the Δίκαιος λόγος in the Clouds, 961 ff.

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