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56. καὶ οἱ δειλοὶ καὶ οἱ θρασεῖς καὶ οἱ μαινόμενοι. In 350Bff. those who are θαρραλέοι without ἐπιστήμη are called μαινόμενοι by an expressive metaphor. Here the μαινόμενοι— which is suggested, but no more—by the μαινόμενοι in 350Bmdash; are treated as a distinct class: the word is to be understood of literal madmen like Ajax in the play of Sophocles. The word θρασεῖς has an evil connotation as in Laws, I. 630B θρασεῖς καὶ ἄδικοι καὶ ὑβρισταὶ καὶ ἀφρονέστατοι σχεδὸν ἁπάντων: Plato could not have said θαρραλέοι here since θαρραλέοι throughout the dialogue is applied also to ἀνδρεῖοι. It would be better to reject (with Kral) both καὶ οἱ θρασεῖς and καὶ οἱ μαινόμενοι than only καὶ οἱ θρασεῖς with Sauppe and Schanz; we should then—as throughout this chapter—have only one negative to ἀνδρεῖοι, viz. δειλοί, but we may allow some latitude of expression to Socrates, and καί after οὐκοῦν is slightly in favour of supposing that other classes follow οἱ δειλοί, though it may go with the whole sentence.

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