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[165] a separate existence, or the records of history preserve the sad story of the civil war, so long will be preserved the record of the bravery and skill of the men and officers of the Reserve Corps of the State of Pennsylvania. After the inglorious defeat at Bull Run — a battle between undrilled men, where the chances of success or defeat were at best but equal — the terror and dismay which prevailed over the North was rapidly quieted when it was known that Governor Curtin had offered this Reserve Corps to the General Government for three years service. It was a nucleus around which a new army might be formed, and one that could maintain its ground in defense of the capital after the discharge of the three months men, and until reinforced by the soldiers of other States. The best that could be done, in the haste to join the regiments for the three months service, was to push the men forward to the front as rapidly as they were mustered into service; but here was a body of men, while their drill had not been completed; and to soldiers of older service would have been but raw recruits, yet they had the organization and accepted the idea of long and hard service, and very rapidly adapted themselves to the new situation.

The battle of Bull Run, the return of the three months men, the attack and defense of Fort Sumter, the early efforts of the navy, very rapidly educated the people in what war was, and how it was to be met. With success, the public mind exhibited a constant tendency to go back to its state of quiet. Adversity aroused the people, and developed increased determination and energy. The change that the first year of the war produced in the condition of the people was marked. The government becoming the employer, there was a demand for labor, for all kinds of manufactured goods and articles, for the productions of the soil, for the building and armament of ships of war, and war material. The inventive powers of the people were taxed to produce deadlier weapons and more destructive guns, to increase certainty of result in attack, as well as safety in defense. Very many of the inventions thus worked out have been adopted and modified by the experienced engineers and artillerists of the Old World, and have given our makers of firearms a pre-eminence which secures them large orders from these governments. The “Monitor,” the Gatling, the breech-loading guns, both great and small, and many others might be mentioned in this list of inventions thus used. The impetus to productions of all kinds, arising from the demands for government supplies, and the heavy tariffs that was placed on imported goods through the increased price of gold, gave the fullest employment to the people. Emigration rapidly increased, and as

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Pennsylvania (Pennsylvania, United States) (1)
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A. G. Curtin (1)
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