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” and Diomede says “ Hector will make his boast at Troy hereafter:
“By me was Tydeus' son . . .”5
”  This type of courage most closely resembles the one described before, because it is prompted by a virtue, namely the sense of shame,6 and by the desire for something noble, namely honor, and the wish to avoid the disgrace of being reproached.  The courage of troops forced into battle by their officers may be classed as of the same type, though they are inferior inasmuch as their motive is not a sense of shame but fear, and the desire to avoid not disgrace but pain. Their masters compel them to be brave, after Hector's fashion: “ Let me see any skulking off the field—
He shall not save his carcase from the dogs!7
”  The same is done by commanders who draw up their troops in front of them and beat them if they give ground,
1 See 6.10.
2 The mss. have ‘it chooses and endures.’
3 ‘Political courage’: Plato uses this phrase （Plat. Rep. 430c） of patriotic courage, based on training and ‘right opinion about what is terrible and what is not,’ and in contrast with the undisciplined courage of slaves and brute beasts. Elsewhere, on the other hand, he contrasts ‘popular and citizen virtue’ in general with the philosopher's virtue, which is based on knowledge.
6 For this emotion see 2.7.14, 4.9.1, where it is said not to be, strictly speaking, a virtue.