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1 The relative value of the units of the two products must be ascertained, say one house must be taken as worth n. Then the four terms are and cross-conjunction gives totals A+nD, B+C, which are in ‘arithmetical proportion’ （see first note on 5.4.3） with the two first terms, i.e. the differentce between each pair is the same; the builder and the shoemaker after the transaction are by an equal amount richer than they were before they began to make the articles.
2 This sentence also appeared in the mss. above, at 4.12, where it made no sense. If genuine here, the phrases ‘active element’ and ‘passive element’ seem to mean producer and consumer. Even so, it is probable that there is some corruption; Jackson's insertion gives ‘unless the passive element produced the same in quantity and quality as the active, and the latter received the same in quantity and quality as the former.’