the Virtues of the Character
and the Virtues of the Intellect. The former, the Moral Virtues, we have already
discussed. Our account of the latter must be prefaced by some remarks about
It has been said before1
that the soul
has two parts, one rational and the other irrational. Let us now similarly divide the
rational part, and let it be assumed that there are two rational faculties, one whereby we
contemplate those things whose first principles are invariable, and one whereby we
contemplate those things which admit of variation: since, on the assumption that knowledge
is based on a likeness or affinity of some sort between subject and object, the parts of
the soul adapted to the cognition of objects that are of different kinds must themselves
differ in kind. 1.
two rational faculties may be designated the Scientific Faculty and the Calculative
Faculty respectively; since calculation is the same as deliberation, and deliberation is
never exercised about things that are invariable, so that the Calculative Faculty is a
separate part of the rational half of the soul.1.
We have therefore to ascertain what disposition of each of these faculties is the best,
for that will be the special virtue of each.
But the virtue of a faculty is related to the special function which that faculty
Now there are
three elements in the soul which control action and the attainment of truth: namely,
Of these, Sensation never originates action, as is shown by the fact that