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or goodness on a heroic or divine scale; just as Homer1 has represented Priam as saying of Hector, on account of his surpassing valor— “ nor seemed to be
The son of mortal man, but of a god.

1. [2]

Hence if, as men say, surpassing virtue changes men into gods, the disposition opposed to Bestiality will clearly be some quality more than human; for there is no such thing as Virtue in the case of a god, any more than there is Vice or Virtue in the case of a beast: divine goodness is something more exalted than Virtue, and bestial badness is different in kind from Vice. 1. [3] And inasmuch as it is rare for a man to be divine, in the sense in which that word is commonly used by the Lacedaemonians as a term of extreme admiration—‘Yon mon's divine,’they say—, so a bestial character is rare among human beings; it is found most frequently among barbarians, and some cases also occur as a result of disease or arrested development. We sometimes also use ‘bestial’ as a term of opprobrium for a surpassing degree of human vice.2 1. [4]

But the nature of the bestial disposition will have to be touched on later; and of Vice we have spoken already. We must however discuss Unrestraint and Softness or Luxury, and also Self-restraint and Endurance.

1 Hom. Il. 24.258. The preceding words are, ‘ Hector, who was a god.’

2 Lit. ‘for those who surpass (the rest of) men in Vice’ (i.e., human, not bestial wickedness).

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