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4.

(ii) We must next discuss whether any man can be called ‘unrestrained’ without qualification, or whether it must always be in relation to certain particular things, and if so, to what sort of things. Now it is plain that men are self-restrained and enduring, unrestrained and soft, in regard to Pleasures and Pains. [2] But the things that give pleasure are of two kinds: some are necessary,1 others are desirable in themselves but admit of excess. The necessary sources of pleasures are those connected with the body: I mean such as the functions of nutrition and sex, in fact those bodily functions which we have indicated2 as the sphere of Profligacy and Temperance. The other sources of pleasure are not necessary, but are desirable in themselves: I mean for example victory, honor, wealth, and the other good and pleasant things of the same sort. Now those who against the right principle within them exceed in regard to the latter class of pleasant things, we do not call unrestrained simply, but with a qualification—unrestrained as to money, gain, honor or anger3 —not merely ‘unrestrained’ ; because we regard them as distinct from the unrestrained in the strict sense, and only so called by analogy, like our familiar example4 of Man the Olympic winner,

1 See 4.5, first note.

2 See Bk. 3.10

3 Cf. 1.7: θυμός, ‘spirit,’ aims at victory, and so is brought into this discussion of ‘pleasures and desires’ ( 4.5); but in chap. 6 it is contrasted with desire, and its indulgence in the form of anger is seen to be painful rather than pleasant (6.4).

4 This seems to be the meaning of the imperfect tenses. An inscription records that a boxer named Ἄνθρωπος won at Olympia in 456 B.C. and the Greek commentators say that he is referred to here. His name would appear to have been used in the Peripatetic school as an example of the analogical use of words.

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