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and similarly with pleasant friends and with those who are friends for the sake of utility, who may be equal or may differ in the amount of the benefits1 which they confer. Those who are equals must make matters equal by loving each other, etc.,2 equally; those who are unequal by making a return3 proportionate to the superiority of whatever kind on the one side. [2]

Complaints and recriminations occur solely or chiefly in friendships of utility, as is to be expected. In a friendship based on virtue each party is eager to benefit the other, for this is characteristic of virtue and of friendship; and as they vie with each other in giving and not in getting benefit, no complaints nor quarrels can arise, since nobody is angry with one who loves him and benefits him, but on the contrary, if a person of good feeling, requites him with service in return; and the one who outdoes the other in beneficence will not have any complaint against his friend, since he gets what he desires, and what each man desires is the good.4 [3] Nor again are complaints likely to occur between friends whose motive is pleasure either; for if they enjoy each other's company, both alike get what they wish for; and indeed it would seem ridiculous to find fault with somebody for not being agreeable to you, when you need not associate with him if you do not want to do so. [4] But a friendship whose motive is utility is liable to give rise to complaints. For here the friends associate with each other for profit, and so each always wants more, and thinks he is getting less than his due; and they make it a grievance that they do not get as much as they want and deserve;

1 i.e., the pleasure or utility as the case may be.

2 i.e., ‘and by being good or pleasant and useful.’

3 The one who is less good or pleasant or useful must give more affection: see 6.6, note, 7.2.

4 The last clause is suspected as an interpolation.

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